Refixation frequency and memory mechanisms in visual search

  title={Refixation frequency and memory mechanisms in visual search},
  author={Iain D. Gilchrist and Monika Harvey},
  journal={Current Biology},
Visual search-looking for a target object in the presence of a number of distractor items-is an everyday activity for humans (for example, finding the car in a busy car park) and animals (for example, foraging for food). Our understanding of visual search has been enriched by an interdisciplinary effort using a wide range of research techniques including behavioural studies in humans [1], single-cell electrophysiology [2], transcranial magnetic stimulation [3], event-related potentials [4] and… 
Role of facilitatory and inhibitory short-term memory mechanisms for the guidance of visual search
In the visual search paradigm, participants’ task is to detect the presence or absence of a target item, which is presented in an array of distractor items. Usually it is found that performance is
The impending demise of the item in visual search
It is argued that the evidence now overwhelmingly favours an approach that takes fixations, not individual items, as its central unit, and promises a more fundamental understanding of visual search by offering a unified account of both eye movement and manual response behaviour across the entire range of observed search efficiency.
A working memory account of refixations in visual search.
No temporal delay for return saccades is found, suggesting that active vision is primarily mediated by VWM rather than by a separate attentional disengagement mechanism commonly associated with the inhibition-of-return (IOR) effect.
Memory processes in multiple-target visual search
The notion of limited capacity memory processes in search, caused by the necessity of having to remember a target-allocating memory for the upcoming target may consume memory capacity that may otherwise be available for the tagging of distractors.
Visual search and selective attention
Visual search is a key paradigm in attention research that has proved to be a test bed for competing theories of selective attention. The starting point for most current theories of visual search has
A role for spatial and nonspatial working memory processes in visual search.
It is found that the efficiency of the inefficient search task declined as spatial memory load increased, but that the efficient search task remained efficient, suggesting that spatial memory plays an important role in inefficient but not efficient search.
Visual Search: The role of memory for rejected distractors
ABSTRACT Serial models of attentional deployment in visual search have traditionally assumed sampling without replacement. Each item in a search array was thought to be selected only once, and
Refixation control in free viewing: a specialized mechanism divulged by eye-movement-related brain activity.
The recently developed methods enabled us to study refixations in a free viewing visual search task, using combined eye movement and EEG recording to identify in the EEG a distinctive refixation-related signal, signifying a control mechanism specific toRefixations as opposed to ordinary eye fixations.
Refixation patterns reveal memory-encoding strategies in free viewing
Correct change detection was associated with more refixation on targets and less on distractors, with increased frequency of recurrence, and with longer intervals between refixations.
Using eye movements to study working memory rehearsal for objects in visual scenes
Results indicate a 16% accuracy benefit linked to target refixation that disappeared if 6 or more objects were fixated after the target during study, which is interpreted as evidence for a monitor-refixate system and a moving-anchor rehearsal strategy.


Electrophysiological measurement of rapid shifts of attention during visual search
This work uses an electrophysiological marker of the moment-by-moment direction of attention — the N2pc component of the event-related potential waveform — to show that attention shifts rapidly among objects during visual search.
The guidance of eye movements during active visual search
An analysis of monkey eye movements in classic conjunction and feature search tasks was made and saccade targeting data suggest that color feature selection can apparently block the distracting effects of color unique distractors during search.
Guided Search 2.0 A revised model of visual search
  • J. Wolfe
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychonomic bulletin & review
  • 1994
This paper reviews the visual search literature and presents a model of human search behavior, a revision of the guided search 2.0 model in which virtually all aspects of the model have been made more explicit and/or revised in light of new data.
Visual search has no memory
Human observers are asked to search for a letter ‘T’ among letters ‘L’ and it is shown that efficiency is not impaired, and the standard theories of visual search must be revised.
Preattentive Processes Guide Visual Search: Evidence from Patients with Unilateral Visual Neglect
It is suggested that flanking stimuli on the neglected contralesional side of visual space can influence the reference frame by grouping with task-relevant stimuli, and that this preattentive influence can be preserved in patients with unilateral visual neglect.
Inhibition of Return is a Foraging Facilitator in Visual Search
Using overt orienting, participants searched a complex visual scene for a camouflaged target (Waldo from the “Where's Waldo?™” books). After several saccades, we presented an uncamouflaged probe
Temporal aspects of visual search studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation
The results suggest that a sub-region of the right parietal lobe is important for conjunction search but not for pre-attentive pop-out, and highlights the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation as a complement to other spatial and temporal imaging techniques.
Eye movements during parallel-serial visual search.
Two experiments (one using O and Q-like stimuli and the other using colored-oriented bars) investigated the oculomotor behavior accompanying parallel-serial visual search. Eye movements were recorded
Eye movements during parallel-serial visual search.
Weak correlations between fixation durations and RTs suggest that this oculomotor measure may be related more to stimulus factors than to search processes, while findings suggest that parallel-serial search dichotomies are reflected in oculumotor behavior.
Saccade Target Selection During Visual Search
  • J. Findlay
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Vision Research
  • 1997
The results suggest that the control of the initial eye movement during both simple and conjunction searches is through a spatially parallel process.