Referred Otalgia in Head and Neck Cancer: A Unifying Schema

  title={Referred Otalgia in Head and Neck Cancer: A Unifying Schema},
  author={Todd J. Scarbrough and Terry Day and Todd E. Williams and James Hardin and Eric G. Aguero and Charles R. Thomas},
  journal={American Journal of Clinical Oncology},
Pain referred to the ear is a commonly encountered clinical event, and the differential diagnoses that must be considered for pain in a normal ear are numerous. For physicians involved in the treatment of patients with referred ear pain, especially those involved in the care of patients with head and neck malignancies, a basic understanding of the mechanisms involved to produce this phenomenon is required. Several sources offer figures outlining the neuroanatomic basis of nonotogenic ear pain… 
The Radiology of Referred Otalgia
The various sensorineural pathways that dually innervate the ear and other sites within the head and neck are outlined, as well as various disease processes that are known to result in referred otalgia are discussed.
The Treatment of Referred Otalgia in a Laryngeal Cancer Patient -A case report-
For the otalgia in a patient with laryngeal cancer and cervical metastasis he was referred from the otorhinolaryngology department, he had no problem around his ear and his otalgia dramatically improved.
Secondary Otalgia: Referred Pain Pathways and Pathologies
The purposes of this review are to detail the currently proposed mechanisms of referred ear pain, review the salient neuroanatomy of the complex pathways responsible for secondary otalgia, highlight important benign and malignant etiologies of referredEar pain, and provide a structured search pattern for approaching these challenging cases on cross-sectional imaging.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Otalgia
This review collected and analyzed articles on otalgia and described anatomical considerations and clinical evaluation of otalgia, and outlined various causes and treatment options for primary and referred otalgia.
Ear pain and diseases of other organs in the area of the head and neck
The anatomic basis for otalgia is reviewed, the common etiologies and current treatments are overviews, and a structured approach to patient assessment is recommended.
Referral to Dentist in Clinical ENT Practice
Interdisciplinary approach with referral to dentist becomes very important in ruling out the possible source of dental pain that gets referred to ear.
Describing referred otalgia is a common otological presenting complaint in otorhinolaryngological practice and the age group 21-30 year has the highest prevalence and tonsillitis is the commonest cause.
Frequency of Involvement of Different Head and Neck Sites in Referred Otalgia
It has been concluded that the patients presenting with ear pain, have sometimes no underlying ear pathology and it is important to examine all other sites of head and neck which share sensory innervation with the ear including teeth, tonsils, pharynx, larynX, nose and paranasal sinuses to find out the exact cause of referred otalgia.
Cervical spine causes for referred otalgia
Chronic Secondary Otalgia : Multidisciplinary Evaluation and Relationship with Cervical Spine Disease
  • Medicine
  • 2017
An algorithm to evaluate secondary Otalgia was developed and the role of cervical spine disease in chronic secondary otalgia was examined and the most frequent etiological factors were CSD, TMD, dental pathologies, and chronic sinusitis.


By carefully taking the patient's history with special attention to epidemiological factors such as smoking and drinking habits, racial traits, a positive family history of head-and-neck neoplasms and accompanying complaints and by performing repeated ENT examination including advanced imaging techniques, long delay in diagnosing head- and-neck cancer can be prevented.
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Because of their anatomical situation and very special clinical features, the diagnosis of these tumours is very often delayed, and when the primary is found, the tumour is well advanced.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in an HIV-positive patient causing severe morbidity and early death
The risk of sexually transmitted HIV was confirmed post mortem and could explain the rapid progression of the tumour and the poor response to radiotherapy and the very aggressive progress after treatment raised suspicion of a co-existing disease process.
A CT-clinical approach to patients with symptoms related to the V, VII, IX-XII cranial nerves and cervical sympathetics.
Patients at high risk for structural lesions responsible for cranial nerve deficits can be selected by clinical criteria and it is essential to extend the CT examination of such patients beyond the skull base when clinically indicated.
Manter and Gatz's essentials of clinical neuroanatomy and neurophysiology
Atlas of Human Anatomy
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    The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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This edition has been almost entirely rewritten with the purpose of reducing the overall length of the book without sacrificing any necessary material, therefore, it is still a reference book that is adequate for the postgraduate as well as the undergraduate.
The Human Nervous System—An Anatomical Viewpoint
Radiation Oncology, ed 7
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