References and Notes

  title={References and Notes},
  author={J. Gary Ashby},
our experimentation could eventually be used to discredit our findings, should they happen not to agree with the original observations. It seems important that all experiments in the rapidly expanding area of endocrine disruption toxicology should be carefully designed and fully reported. The use of concurrent positive and negative control groups also seems to be prudent. These needs are independent of who conducts or sponsors studies. Good science is good science. Finally, it should be noted… 

Figures from this paper

Science Magazine

A study published online this week by Science found that none of the nine labs could reproducibly detect XMRV or relatives of the virus in blood samples distributed under a blinded code.

Ongoing Controversy over Pfiesteria

The toxic microbe Pfiesteria has nontoxic as well as toxic strains, and expression of toxicity by toxic strains depends on culture conditions, but it is now shown that when cultured and tested appropriately, strain CCMP2089 is ichthyotoxic.

Science 2.0.

Proponents say these "open access" practices make scientific progress more collaborative and therefore more productive, while critics say scientists who put preliminary findings online risk having others copy or exploit the work to gain credit or even patents.

Electroencephalogram Tests for Brain Dysfunction:

Those individuals whose performance deteriorated with the normal loss of arousal that accompanies prolonged wakefulness showed even greater impairment accompanying loss of aroused after the 10-mg diazepam treatment, and the lability of the arousal process might be the individual mitigating factor that determines the drug's effect.

Cause and Effect in Biology Kinds of causes , predictability , and teleology are viewed by a practicing biologist

Kinds of causes, predictability, and teleology are viewed by a practicing biologist. Being a practicing biologist I feel that I cannot attempt the kind of analysis of cause and effect in biological

Heritability of IQ

thoritarian instrument, stifling the ability of scientists to speak out on public policy matters. His views may be shared by many scientists. It is important that wide public debate be held on the

Path to Treat Rett Syndrome

Interest has prompted interest in advancing this treatment to humans after intriguing results showed that alterations in cholesterol metabolism in response to statin therapy had a beneficial effect on RTT-associated symptoms in a mouse model of the disease.

Science Magazine

A panel was convened by the NIH Director Harold Varmus in 1995 to assess the state of the gene therapy field, and this group described a field in which research findings were oversold, expectations were raised beyond what was reasonable at the time, and scientific rigor was relaxed in the enthusiasm to rush ahead.

The Double-Edged Sword: Does Biomechanism Increase or Decrease Judges' Sentencing of Psychopaths?

This work tested whether expert testimony concerning a biomechanism of psychopathy increases or decreases punishment and contribute to the literature on how biological explanations of behavior figure into theories of culpability and punishment.

Science Magazine

SCIENCE T echnological innovations are penetrating all areas of science, making predominantly human activities a principal bottleneck in scientific progress while also making



… genetics …

A possible genetic aetiology to CSVT, provides reliable risk estimates and allows accurate comparison with genetic risk in other vascular conditions is supported.


STUDENTS of Geology will welcome this third and much enlarged edition of Prof. Green's excellent text-book, though they may at first sight regret the exchange of the old convenient manual form of the

Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coatings in food cans.

It is apparent that all estrogenic activity in these cans was due to bisphenol-A leached from the lacquer coating, and the use of plastic in food-packaging materials may require closer scrutiny to determine whether epoxy resins and polycarbonates contribute to human exposure to xenoestrogens.

The xenoestrogen bisphenol A induces growth, differentiation, and c-fos gene expression in the female reproductive tract.

The studies demonstrate that the molecular and morphological alterations induced by BPA in the uterus and vagina are nearly identical to those induced by estradiol; the vagina appears to be especially sensitive to the estrogenic actions of BPA.

Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses.

It is suggested that a small increase in estrogen may modulate the action of androgen in regulating prostate differentiation, resulting in a permanent increase in prostatic androgen receptors and prostate size.

The Effective Free Fraction of Estradiol and Xenoestrogens in Human Serum Measured by Whole Cell Uptake Assays: Physiology of Delivery Modifies Estrogenic Activity

  • S. NagelF. V. vom SaalW. Welshons
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1998
The relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay was developed to determine the effect of serum on the access of nonradioactive xenoestrogens to estrogen receptors within intact MCF-7 cells and found that the estrogenic activity of these phytoestrogens would be underestimated in serum-free assays.

Reproductive tract lesions in male mice exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol

Sixty percent of the male offspring from pregnant mice treated with diethylstilbestrol during gestation were sterile, and nodular masses in the ampullary region of the reproductive tract were observed in 6 of 24 animals, which appeared to be preneoplastic.

The environmental estrogen bisphenol A stimulates prolactin release in vitro and in vivo.

BPA mimics estradiol in inducing hyperprolactinemia in genetically predisposed rats and the in vivo action is mediated, at least in part, by increasing PRL regulating factor activity in the posterior pituitary.

Estrogenicity of resin-based composites and sealants used in dentistry.

The use of bis-GMA-based resins in dentistry, and particularly the use of sealants in children, appears to contribute to human exposure to xenoestrogens.