Reelin glycoprotein: structure, biology and roles in health and disease

@article{Fatemi2005ReelinGS,
  title={Reelin glycoprotein: structure, biology and roles in health and disease},
  author={S Hossein Fatemi},
  journal={Molecular Psychiatry},
  year={2005},
  volume={10},
  pages={251-257}
}
  • S. Fatemi
  • Published 1 March 2005
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Molecular Psychiatry
Reelin glycoprotein is a secretory serine protease with dual roles in mammalian brain: embryologically, it guides neurons and radial glial cells to their corrected positions in the developing brain; in adult brain, Reelin is involved in a signaling pathway which underlies neurotransmission, memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Disruption of Reelin signaling pathway by mutations and selective hypermethylation of the Reln gene promoter or following various pre- or postnatal insults may lead… 
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Altered Reelin levels might be altered in the brains of human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice, particularly in brain regions vulnerable to AD such as hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, to conclude that alterations in Reelin processing or signaling may be involved in AD-related neuronal dysfunction.
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The current state of knowledge on the best established and some other putative partners of the Reelin pathway are reviewed.
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The findings demonstrate the distinctive phenotype of LCH, which is easily distinguishable from other forms of lissencephaly, and its role, if any, in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders remains unclear.
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References

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Interaction of reelin signaling and Lis1 in brain development
TLDR
Interactions between the reelin signaling pathway and Lis1 in brain development are investigated and Dab1 and Lis 1 bound in a reelin-induced phosphorylation-dependent manner, indicating genetic and biochemical interaction between the self-reinforcing pathways.
A protein related to extracellular matrix proteins deleted in the mouse mutant reeler
TLDR
The reeler phenotype seems to reflect a failure of early events associated with brain lamination which are normally controlled by reelin.
Reelin, Disabled 1, and β1 integrins are required for the formation of the radial glial scaffold in the hippocampus
TLDR
It is shown that a regular glial scaffold fails to form in vivo in the dentate gyrus of mice deficient of Reelin or Disabled 1, a neuronal adaptor protein in the Reelin signaling pathway, and data suggest that Reelin affects glial differentiation via Disabled 1 and β1-class integrin-dependent signaling pathways.
Reelin Is a Secreted Glycoprotein Recognized by the CR-50 Monoclonal Antibody
TLDR
It is demonstrated that Reelin is a secreted glycoprotein and that a highly charged C-terminal region is essential for secretion and that an amino acid sequence present in the N- terminal region of Reelin contains an epitope that is recognized by the CR-50 monoclonal antibody.
Altered levels of cerebrospinal fluid reelin in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease
TLDR
The presence of detectable levels of reelin in rat and human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and evidence for the involvement of a 180‐kDa reelin fragment in two neurodegenerative disorders are reported, for the first time.
Reelin Is a Ligand for Lipoprotein Receptors
Reelin and Disabled‐1 Expression in Developing and Mature Human Cortical Neurons
TLDR
The novel finding that human DAB1 and RELN are coexpressed in CR neurons during cortical development and in cortical pyramidal neurons after neuronal migration is complete is reported.
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