Reductions in neural activity underlie behavioral components of repetition priming

@article{Wig2005ReductionsIN,
  title={Reductions in neural activity underlie behavioral components of repetition priming},
  author={Gagan S. Wig and Scott T. Grafton and Kathryn E. Demos and William M. Kelley},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
  year={2005},
  volume={8},
  pages={1228-1233}
}
Repetition priming is a nonconscious form of memory that is accompanied by reductions in neural activity when an experience is repeated. To date, however, there is no direct evidence that these neural reductions underlie the behavioral advantage afforded to repeated material. Here we demonstrate a causal linkage between neural and behavioral priming in humans. fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used in combination with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to target and disrupt… 
Reductions in cortical activity during priming
Evidence for Neural Effects of Repetition that Directly Correlate with Behavioral Priming
TLDR
The finding of a quantitative relation between neural and behavioral effects in frontal regions suggests that repetition reduces frontally mediated processing in a manner that ultimately facilitates behavior.
The effects of priming on frontal-temporal communication
TLDR
It is suggested that object repetition results in enhanced interactions between brain regions, which facilitates performance and reduces processing demands on the regions involved.
Repetition priming influences distinct brain systems: evidence from task-evoked data and resting-state correlations.
TLDR
A repetition priming functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm that directly contrasted the effects of stimulus and decision changes to identify the underlying brain systems was used to explain the long-known dissociation between perceptual and conceptual components of priming.
Neural Correlates of Repetition Priming: A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of fMRI Studies
TLDR
The results show that repetition priming was mainly associated with RS in left inferior frontal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, and question the simple distinction between conceptual and perceptual priming, and suggest consideration of other factors such as stimulus-response bindings.
Neural Priming in Human Frontal Cortex: Multiple Forms of Learning Reduce Demands on the Prefrontal Executive System
TLDR
Three distinct patterns of neural priming were identified in lateral frontal cortex, indicating that frontal computational demands are reduced by three forms of learning: cortical tuning of stimulus-specific representations, retrieval of learned stimulus-decision mappings, and retrieval of learning stimulus-response mappings.
Examining the relationship between behavioral repetition priming and fMRI repetition suppression
TLDR
Repetition suppression was found in visual perceptual and frontal phonological regions involved at both study and test, supporting a “component process” view that repetition suppression and priming can occur at a perceptual level with limited conceptual or top-down processes involved.
Enhanced inter-regional coupling of neural responses underlies long-term behavioral priming
TLDR
Test four prominent neural models of repetition suppression and behavioral priming show that the model with the most support is the Synchrony model: a whole-brain connectivity analysis revealed that temporoparietal cortex has increased coupling with anterior cingulate cortex following repetition, particularly for strongly primed objects.
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References

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TLDR
The finding of a quantitative relation between neural and behavioral effects in frontal regions suggests that repetition reduces frontally mediated processing in a manner that ultimately facilitates behavior.
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TLDR
This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this repetition-related response is sensitive to stimulus familiarity and exhibited an attenuated response to the repetition of familiar stimuli, both faces and symbols, but exhibited an enhanced response tothe repetition of unfamiliar stimuli.
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TLDR
The surprising finding that activity reductions in the inferior temporal cortex can be linked to repetition of either visual or auditory cues further suggests that these regions may be modulated in a top-down fashion during repetition priming, independent of (or in parallel with) stimulus-driven perceptual processes.
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TLDR
Repeated versus initial presentations of sounds resulted in repetition priming and reduced activation in the right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral superior temporal sulci, and right inferior prefrontal cortex, which indicates that priming for environmental sounds is associated with modification of neural activation in modality-specific auditory cortex, as well as in multimodal areas.
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  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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TLDR
Three commonly observed neuronal effects in memory-demanding tasks are repetition suppression, enhancement, and delay activity, which appear to be an intrinsic property of visual cortical areas such as inferior temporal cortex and is thought to be important for perceptual learning and priming.
Cortical activity reductions during repetition priming can result from rapid response learning
TLDR
Experimental support is provided for an alternative hypothesis, in which reduced cortical activity occurs because subjects rapidly learn their previous responses, which highlights the role of the prefrontal cortex in executive control.
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