Drought stress increases the production of 5-hydroxynorvaline in two C4 grasses.
Further chemical evidence has been obtained using NaB3H4 to support our previous assignment of a thiol ester bond in human C3 (Tack, B. F., Harrison, R. A., Janatova, J., Thomas, M. L., and Prahl, J. W. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 5764-5768). Following trypsin activation of human C3 in the presence of NaB3H4, 3H was shown to have incorporated specifically into the alpha'-chain of C3b. Subsequent fragmentation of [3H]C3b with porcine elastase further localized the label to the C3d subdomain. Under identical conditions, native C3 or C3 pretreated with trypsin (C3b) showed low reactivity with NaB3H4. A tryptic peptide containing the 3H label was isolated following digestion of [3H]C3b on activated thiol-Sepharose. After hydrolysis and saponification of the peptide hydrolysate, amino acid analysis indicated that the 3H had been incorporated into alpha-amino-delta-hydroxyvaleric acid, the product expected from reduction of an ester bond involving a glutamyl residue. On sequence analysis of the labeled peptide, the 3H was shown to reside at the position of the glutamyl residue previously proposed to be involved in the thiol ester bond. The residue at this position was confirmed as alpha-amino-delta-[3H] hydroxyvaleric acid by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and, after back hydrolysis, by amino acid analysis. These data significantly strengthen earlier studies which indicated the presence of a beta-Cys-gamma-Glu thiol ester bond in human C3.