Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group.

@article{Connor1994ReductionOM,
  title={Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group.},
  author={E. Connor and R. Sperling and R. Gelber and P. Kiselev and G. Scott and M. O’Sullivan and R. Vandyke and M. Bey and W. Shearer and R. Jacobson},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={1994},
  volume={331 18},
  pages={
          1173-80
        }
}
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Maternal-infant transmission is the primary means by which young children become infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of zidovudine in reducing the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission. HIV-infected pregnant women (14 to 34 weeks' gestation) with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts above 200 cells per cubic millimeter who had not received antiretroviral therapy during… Expand
Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to infant. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group.
TLDR
To prevent HIV-1 transmission, initiating maternal treatment with zidovudine is recommended regardless of the plasma level of HIV- 1 RNA or the CD4+ count, and the reduction in viral RNA from base line to delivery was not significantly associated with the risk of transmission. Expand
Short-course therapy with zidovudine plus lamivudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Thailand.
TLDR
Short-course therapy with zidovudine plus lamivudine appeared to be safe and effective for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV-1. Expand
Risk factors for perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in women treated with zidovudine. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 185 Team.
TLDR
Antiretroviral therapy that reduces the HIV-1 RNA level to below 500 copies per milliliter appears to minimize the risk of perinatal transmission as well as improve the health of the women. Expand
Zidovudine administered to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and to their neonates reduces pediatric infection independent of an effect on levels of maternal virus.
TLDR
Zidovudine reduces HIV-1 maternal transmission independent of its effect on the level of the maternal peripheral blood proviral load. Expand
The effects of zidovudine in the subset of infants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076).
TLDR
Zidovudine therapy during pregnancy and labor and in the neonatal period for 6 weeks failed to have a major effect on rapid progression of disease, timing of transmission, and viral replication in HIV-infected infants, and resistance to zidovUDine did not develop during study treatment. Expand
Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial
TLDR
Nevirapine lowered the risk of HIV-1 transmission during the first 14-16 weeks of life by nearly 50% in a breastfeeding population, suggesting this simple and inexpensive regimen could decrease mother-to-child HIV- 1 transmission in less-developed countries. Expand
Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.
TLDR
The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidvudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission. Expand
A trial of shortened zidovudine regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Perinatal HIV Prevention Trial (Thailand) Investigators.
TLDR
The short-short zidovudine regimen is inferior to the long-long regimen and leads to a higher rate of perinatal HIV transmission, which suggests that longer treatment of the infant cannot substitute for longerreatment of the mother. Expand
Efficacy of antenatal zidovudine in reducing perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The New York City Perinatal HIV Transmission Collaborative Study Group.
TLDR
New York City women enrolled during 1986-1993 in an observational cohort study were analyzed retrospectively to determine the effectiveness of antenatal zidovudine in reducing perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, suggesting that women with severe CD4+ cell depression, who are at highest risk of transmitting HIV-1, may also benefit from zidvudine. Expand
Identification of levels of maternal HIV-1 RNA associated with risk of perinatal transmission. Effect of maternal zidovudine treatment on viral load.
TLDR
Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels were highly predictive of perinatal transmission risk and suggest that certain levels of virus late in gestation and/or during labor and delivery are associated with both a high risk and a low risk of transmission. Expand
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