Reduction of Psychotomimetic Side Effects of Ketalar® (Ketamine) by Rohypnol®(Flunitrazepam) A Randomized, Double‐Blind Trial

  title={Reduction of Psychotomimetic Side Effects of Ketalar{\textregistered} (Ketamine) by Rohypnol{\textregistered}(Flunitrazepam) A Randomized, Double‐Blind Trial},
  author={Ib Freuchen and J. {\o}Sjstergaard and J. B. Kuhl and Birgit Ohrt Mikkelsen},
  journal={Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica},
A double‐blind controlled trial based on 140 women undergoing abortus provocatus was employed to study whether the frequency of side effects after administration of the anaesthetic Ketalar®(ketamine) could be reduced by a concurrent dose of Rohypnol® (flunitrazepam). The control group was given ketamine alone. The dosage of ketamine was 2 mg/kg body weight, supplemented if necessary by 1 mg/kg, in combination with either 2 mg flunitrazepam or placebo. No other anaesthetics were used. On several… 
The effect of variable‐dose diazepam on dreaming and emergence phenomena in 400 cases of ketamine‐fentanyl anaesthesia
  • R. Grace
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • 2003
This randomised double‐blind field study compared 400 anaesthetics using diazepam with ketamine and fentanyl in Melanesian patients to find out which doses have favourable psychic and cardiovascular effects and which do not.
Flunitrazepam: A Review of its Pharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Use
SummarySynopsis: Flunitrazepam1 is a benzodiazepine derivative whose hypnotic effect predominates over the sedative, anxiolytic, muscle-relaxing and anticonvulsant effects characteristic of
The Antidepressant Effect of Ketamine Is Dampened by Concomitant Benzodiazepine Medication
The results of the study indicate that concomitant benzodiazepine treatment in higher doses may attenuate ketamine’s antidepressant effect, and the pathophysiological, clinical and methodological implications should be considered in future research and ketamine treatment.
Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Psychotomimetic, perceptual, cognitive, and neuroendocrine responses.
These data indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists produce a broad range of symptoms, behaviors, and cognitive deficits that resemble aspects of endogenous psychoses, particularly schizophrenia and dissociative states.
An Audit of the Haemodynamic and Emergence Characteristics of Single-Shot ‘ketofol’
For short procedures such as post-partum tubal ligation in fit patients, ketofol appears to have minimal adverse haemodynamic effects and favourable emergence characteristics.
Acute and chronic effects of ketamine upon human memory: a review
This article reviews the existing literature on the effects of acute ketamine on the memory of healthy volunteers and of repeated doses of ketamine in recreational users and suggests that ketamine may differ from other classic amnestic drugs in impairing aspects of semantic memory.
Intravenous Benzodiazepines as Anaesthetic Agents: Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Consequences
Benzodiazepines have many important advantages when used as intravenous inducing agents of general anaesthesia, including a high variability in drug response, a relatively slow onset of action and long‐lasting residual effects.


The Prevention of Ketamine Dreams *
Plethysmographic studies showed that ketamine causes dilatation of the alpha blood vessels, constriction of the beta blood Vessels, and blocks the reflex alpha adrenergic vasoconstrictive reaction to surgical trauma.
The taming of ketamine *
Ketamine possesses many unique properties, such as ability to be given by the intravenous or intramuscular route, and the production of profound analgesia without cardiovascular depression, which could make it superior as an induction agent to any other at present in clinical use provided the post-operative problems could be minimized.
A consideration of ketamine dreams
It is suggested that goggles may be advantageous when dealing with home-dreamers, and a question about the patient’s tendency to dream should be included in the preoperative questioning.
Atar-analgesia with Ro 54200, pancuronium and fentanyl or ketamine
  • Proceedings of the Fayth World Congress of Anaesthesiologists, Kyoto,
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A consideration of FREUCHEN , I . & ( Z ) STERGAARD , J . ( 1974 ) A new ketamine dreams
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Atar-analgesic mixtures: Diazepam-ketamine
  • Fourth Eurofiean Congress of Anaesthesiology - Abstracts,
  • 1974
Atar-analgesic mixtures: Diazepam-ketamine. Fourth Eurofiean Congress of Anaesthesiology -Abstracts
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  • 1974
Klinische Erfahrungen mit Ro 54200 in der Anaesthesie
  • Anaesthesist
  • 1974
On the use of flunitrazepam (Ro 5-4200) in anaesthesia
  • Fourth European Congress of AnaesthesioloD Abstracts,
  • 1974