Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence

@article{Aronson2002ReducingTE,
  title={Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence},
  author={Joshua Aronson and Carrie B. Fried and Catherine Good},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Social Psychology},
  year={2002},
  volume={38},
  pages={113-125}
}
Abstract African American college students tend to obtain lower grades than their White counterparts, even when they enter college with equivalent test scores. Past research suggests that negative stereotypes impugning Black students' intellectual abilities play a role in this underperformance. Awareness of these stereotypes can psychologically threaten African Americans, a phenomenon known as “stereotype threat” (Steele & Aronson, 1995), which can in turn provoke responses that impair both… 

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