Reducing Subway Crowding: Analysis of an Off-Peak Discount Experiment in Hong Kong

@article{Halvorsen2016ReducingSC,
  title={Reducing Subway Crowding: Analysis of an Off-Peak Discount Experiment in Hong Kong},
  author={Anne Lise Halvorsen and Haris N. Koutsopoulos and Stephen Lau and Tom Au and Jinhuan Zhao},
  journal={Transportation Research Record},
  year={2016},
  volume={2544},
  pages={38 - 46}
}
Increases in ridership are outpacing capacity expansions in several transit systems. By shifting their focus to demand management, agencies can instead influence how customers use the system and get more out of their present capacity. This paper uses Hong Kong’s Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system as a case study to explore the effects of crowding reduction strategies and how to use fare data to support these measures. The MTR system introduced a discount in September 2014 to encourage users to… 

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