OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of administration of rosiglitazone, an artificial ligand of PPARγ, on the expression and secretion of apolipoprotein (apoM) in fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rats, an animal model for type 2-like diabetes. METHODS Healthy male SD rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group (n=7), a high-fat chow group (HF group, n=8), a diabetes mellitus group (DM group, n=7), and a diabetes mellitus group with rosiglitazone intervention group (RSG group, n=7). Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured at the beginning of the study. The diabetic rats model was established by feeding high fat chow and intraperitoneal injection of streprozotocin. Then the randomly selected treatment group was given rosiglitazone by daily gavage for 8 weeks. All the rats were killed at the fifteenth week, at which time blood and tissues (liver, kidney, adipose) were collected and prepared. The levels of FBG, FINS, TG and TC were assayed. The level of apoM in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine apoM mRNA expression in liver, kidney, and adipose tissues. RESULTS Compared with either control group or HF group, serum apoM concentration in the DM group was reduced significantly (P<0.05); compared with the DM group, however, serum apoM concentrations in RSG group were increased (P<0.05). The expression of apoM mRNA in liver was highest, in kidney medium, and in adipose tissue extremely low (P<0.05). ApoM mRNA expression in liver and kidney was decreased in both DM and HF groups compared to control group (P<0.05). But, as with serum apoM concentration, apoM mRNA in the liver, kidney and adipose tissues of the RSG group were all increased markedly (P<0.05). The level of serum apoM in SD rats correlated negatively with TG (r=-0.466, P=0.011), TC (r=-0.568, P= 0.001), FBS (r =-0.371, P<0.001), and FINS(r=-0.768, P= 0.048 ). CONCLUSION These results suggest that apoM may participate in the glucose and lipid metabolism by the regulation of PPARγ.