Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide

  title={Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide},
  author={Hannes Baumann and Stephanie C. Talmage and Christopher J. Gobler},
  journal={Nature Climate Change},
Adult fish seem relatively resilient to increased carbon dioxide levels, but how early-life-stage fish fare remains less clear. In a study, the estuarine fish Menidia beryllina experienced severely reduced survival and growth rates in its early life stages under levels of ocean acidification expected later this century. This suggests that ocean acidification may affect fish populations, because small changes in early-life survival can generate large fluctuations in adult-fish abundance. 
Growth performance and survival of larval Atlantic herring , under the combined effects of elevated temperatures and CO 2
In the coming decades, environmental change like warming and acidification will affect life in the ocean. While data on single stressor effects on fish are accumulating rapidly, we still know
Growth performance and survival of larval Atlantic herring, under the combined effects of elevated temperatures and CO2
The comparatively high sensitivity to elevated temperature in this study may have been influenced by low food levels offered to the larvae, and the need to include biotic factors such as energy supply via prey availability in future studies on interactive effects of multiple stressors is emphasized.
Parental environment mediates impacts of increased carbon dioxide on a coral reef fish
It is shown that ocean conditions projected for the end of the century and a temperature rise of 1.5–3.0 °C cause an increase in metabolic rate and decreases in length, weight, condition and survival of juvenile fish, but these effects are absent or reversed when parents also experience high CO₂ concentrations.
Food web changes under ocean acidification promote herring larvae survival
The need to assess the food web effects of ocean acidification on fish larvae before the authors can predict even the sign of change in fish recruitment in a high-CO2 ocean is emphasized.
The Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide in Seawater on the Early Life Stages of Black Sea Bream Acanthopagrus schlegelii
The standard length and wet weight of black sea bream larvae declined with enhanced concentration in the rearing water and the acid-base balance suggested the formation of bone and otolith during larval growth.
Negative Effects of Diurnal Changes in Acidification and Hypoxia on Early-Life Stage Estuarine Fishes
Larval responses to hypoxia, and to a lesser extent acidification, in this study on both continuous and diurnal timescales indicate that estuarine conditions throughout the spawning and postspawn periods could adversely affect stocks of these fish, with diverse implications for the remainder of the food web.
Ocean warming has a greater effect than acidification on the early life history development and swimming performance of a large circumglobal pelagic fish
The results show that higher temperature is likely to be the primary driver of global change impacts on kingfish early life history; however, elevated pCO2 could affect critical aspects of swimming performance in this pelagic species.
Organ damage in Atlantic herring larvae as a result of ocean acidification.
The detrimental effects of OA on the development of a commercially important fish species, the Atlantic herring, are shown by reared at three levels of CO2, with the degree of damage increasing with CO2 concentration.
Expanding evaluation of ocean acidification responses in a marine gadid: elevated CO2 impacts development, but not size of larval walleye pollock
Although the observations of reduced swim bladder inflation rates and changes in lipid cycling suggest the presence of sub-lethal effects of acidification that may carry over and manifest in later life stages, the continued need to evaluate the impacts of ocean acidification on marine fishes across a wide range of traits and life stages is supported.
Effects of parental acclimation and energy limitation in response to high CO2 exposure in Atlantic cod
A significant reduction in larval survival at elevated CO2 that was partly compensated by parental acclimation to the same CO2 exposure is found, indicating that surplus metabolic resources need to be available to allow a transgenerational alleviation response to ocean acidification.


Ocean acidification does not affect the early life history development of a tropical marine fish.
The results suggest that juvenile A. polyacanthus are tolerant of moderate increases in environmental CO2 and that further acidification of the ocean will not, in isolation, have a significant effect on the early life history development of this species, and perhaps other tropical reef fishes.
Early Life History and Recruitment in Fish Populations
The early life history of fishes and its role in recruitment processes, as well as parent-progeny relationships and selective processes, are studied to help understand recruitment in fish populations.
Elevated CO2 Enhances Otolith Growth in Young Fish
Otoliths of young fish grown under high CO2 (low pH) conditions are larger than normal, contrary to expectation, and it is hypothesized that CO2 moves freely through the epithelium around the otoliths in young fish, accelerating otolith growth while the local pH is controlled.
Effects of past, present, and future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth and survival of larval shellfish
The results suggest that the ocean acidification that has occurred during the past two centuries may be inhibiting the development and survival of larval shellfish and contributing to global declines of some bivalve populations.
Fishes in high-CO2, acidified oceans
Research interest in CO2-driven ocean acidification has been centered on certain groups of calcifying marine organisms, but knowledge on the possible impacts of ocean acidification on fish is
Replenishment of fish populations is threatened by ocean acidification
Levels of dissolved CO2 predicted to occur in the ocean this century alter the behavior of larval fish and dramatically decrease their survival during recruitment to adult populations and have far-reaching consequences for the sustainability of fish populations.
A Review of Size Dependant Survival During Pre-recruit Stages of Fishes in Relation to Recruitment
The hypothesis that survival is a direct function of growth provides a rational theoretical framework for recruitment research and is suggested as a basis for future work.
Near-future level of CO2-driven ocean acidification radically affects larval survival and development in the brittlestar Ophiothrix fragilis
If oceans continue to acidify as expected, ecosystems of the Atlantic dominated by this keystone species will be seriously threatened with major changes in many key benthic and pelagic ecosystems, and it may be useful to monitor O. fragilis populations and initiate conservation if needed.