Redshirting and Early Retention: Who Gets the "Gift of Time" and What Are Its Outcomes?

  title={Redshirting and Early Retention: Who Gets the "Gift of Time" and What Are Its Outcomes?},
  author={Marit Graue and James Clyde DiPerna},
  journal={American Educational Research Journal},
  pages={509 - 534}
This paper describes the results of a study that examined the prevalence of the delay of kindergarten entry, also known as academic redshirting. Utilizing a representative sample of Wisconsin school district, the authors examined the school records of more than 8,000 students to depict patterns of school entry, promotion, subsequent special services, and student achievement. Results indicate that approximately 7% of the sample bad delayed school entry and that those children were primarily boys… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

A study of the effect of kindergarten entrance age on the referral and placement rate into the exceptional children's program
This study examined relationships between specific data on students referred for and placed in the exceptional children's program in a rural North Carolina county to examine variables and their relationships that served to predict likelihood of outcomes related to placement.
Rethinking Grade Retention and Academic Redshirting: Helping School Administrators Make Sense of What Works.
In this article, the authors discuss two interventions deployed to remediate low performing students. The rst is grade level retention in which a student is required to repeat a given grade due to
The Effects of Academic Redshirting and Relative Age on Student Achievement.
Academic redshirting is the act of keeping a child out of school for an additional year before kindergarten. This practice has become prevalent in America as kindergarten standards become more
Who Gets the 'Gift of Time' in Australia?
The practice of ‘academic red-shirting’ (parents delaying enrolment in primary school for a year after their child is first eligible) is becoming more common in the developed world and little is known about the factors associated with delayed school entry in Australia.
The Impact of KinderQuest on Reading and Math in Early and Intermediate Elementary Students
This paper explored the history of education, including how the focus has evolved into the current demand for a qualified workforce, and the practices of retention and social promotion. Grade level
Kindergarten postponed: examining parents' decisions and teacher opinions concerning school readiness
In the United States of America, the practice of kindergarten redshirting i.e., of waiting to enroll a child into kindergarten until the year after the child was originally eligible, is becoming more
Associations between age at school entry and academic performance: Using data from a nationally representative, longitudinal sample
The findings are strengthened because the youngest students in the study were found to not be “at-risk’ in other identified areas (gender, socioeconomic status, parents’ education level) and performed less well than their school entry peers in both reading and math.
Does the Timing of Grade Retention Make a Difference? Examining the Effects of Early Versus Later Retention
Research examining the effectiveness of grade retention has provided overwhelming and seemingly irrefutable evidence that grade retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful practice. However,


Does Delayed School Entry Reduce Later Grade Retentions and Use of Special Education Services?
The practice of delaying children's entry into a kindergarten program 1 year beyond the traditional chronolgical age of their classmates is a controversial issue. although this practice has been said
A comparison of students who delay kindergarten entry and those who are retained in grades K−5
Retention has been one way that school personnel have dealt with the problem of school failure. Some authors have proposed delayed school entry as an alternative to retention, especially since there
The Impact of Age, Sex, and Ethnicity on Kindergarten Entry and Retention Decisions
Kindergarten plays an important role in a child’s socialization to the school system. Increased academic accountability at upper grades has resulted in an “escalation” of the curriculum in many
The Decision To Delay School Entry: Profiles of Two Groups of Mothers and Implications for School Psychological Practice.
Although kindergarten entry is delayed for a significant number of children each year, many aspects of this practice have not been investigated. This study examined reasons mothers chose to delay
Increased behavior problems associated with delayed school entry and delayed school progress.
Both old-for-grade status and grade retention are independently associated with increased rates of behavior problems, most noticeably among adolescents, and data suggest that there may be latent adverse behavioral outcomes that result from delaying children's school entry.
Readiness testing in local school districts: an analysis of backdoor policies
This policy analysis of readiness testing in local school districts has three parts: (1) a summary of research on issues comprising the policy context; (2) a review of readiness test uses and
High stakes : testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation
Everyone is in favor of "high education standards" and "fair testing" of student achievement, but there is little agreement as to what these terms actually mean. High Stakes looks at how testing
The incidence of delayed school entry: A twelve-year review.
Delaying school entry for a year beyond a child's chronological eligibility for kindergarten is a controversial practice. However, it is unclear from the available literature exactly how common this