Albendazole induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis
SIGNIFICANCE Parasitic diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide and represent major health problems. Treatment is becoming extremely difficult due to the emergence of drug resistance, the absence of effective vaccines, and the spread of insecticide-resistant vectors. Thus, identification of affordable and readily available drugs against resistant parasites is of global demand. RECENT ADVANCES Susceptibility of many parasites to oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or inhibition of endogenous antioxidant enzymes would be a novel therapeutic approach to develop antiparasitic drugs. This article highlights the unique metabolic pathways along with redox enzymes of unicellular (Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis) and multicellular parasites (Schistosoma mansoni), which could be utilized to promote ROS-mediated toxicity. CRITICAL ISSUES Enzymes involved in various vital redox reactions could be potential targets for drug development. FUTURE DIRECTIONS The identification of redox-active antiparasitic drugs along with their mode of action will help researchers around the world in designing novel drugs in the future.