Redfield revisited: variability of C:N:P in marine microalgae and its biochemical basis

@article{Geider2002RedfieldRV,
  title={Redfield revisited: variability of C:N:P in marine microalgae and its biochemical basis},
  author={Richard J Geider and Julie La Roche},
  journal={European Journal of Phycology},
  year={2002},
  volume={37},
  pages={1 - 17}
}
A compilation of data on the elemental composition of marine phytoplankton from published studies was used to determine the range of C:N:P. The N:P ratio of algae and cyanobacteria is very plastic in nutrient-limited cells, ranging from <5 mol N:mol P when phosphate is available greatly in excess of nitrate or ammonium to <100 mol N:mol P when inorganic N is present greatly in excess of P. Under optimal nutrient-replete growth conditions, the cellular N:P ratio is somewhat more constrained… 
Co-evolution of phytoplankton C:N:P stoichiometry and the deep ocean N:P ratio
TLDR
First, the C:N:P stoichiometry of phytoplankton varies with growth rate, nutrient and light limitation, species and phylum, and although N-fixation is sometimes P-limited and suppressed by N-addition, there is also evidence for Fe- Limitation, light-limitation and P and Fe co-limitations of N- fixers.
The Macromolecular Basis of Phytoplankton C:N:P Under Nitrogen Starvation
TLDR
The findings indicate that carbohydrate and lipid accumulation may play a key role in determining the environmental and taxonomic variability in phytoplankton C:N, and can be used to develop physiological models for ecological and biogeochemical applications.
Elemental composition of natural populations of key microbial groups in Atlantic waters.
TLDR
Similar C:P or N:P ratios in areas with different concentrations of inorganic phosphorus suggests that this is not just a response to the prevailing environmental conditions but an indication of the extremely low P content of these oceanic microbes.
The impact of surface-adsorbed phosphorus on phytoplankton Redfield stoichiometry
TLDR
It is reported that Redfield ratios are also strongly affected by partitioning into surface-adsorbed and intracellular phosphorus pools, and this scavenging could affect the interpretation of marine nutrient inventories and ecosystem models.
A meta-analysis on environmental drivers of marine phytoplankton C : N : P
Abstract. The elemental stoichiometry of marine phytoplankton plays a critical role in global biogeochemical cycles through its impact on nutrient cycling, secondary production, and carbon export.
Responses of elemental and biochemical composition of Chaetoceros muelleri to growth under varying light and nitrate : phosphate supply ratios and their influence on critical N: P
The critical nitrogen‐to‐phosphorous ratio (N:P) defines the transition between N and P limitation of growth rate and is not a biological constant. To test the effect of environmental conditions on
Effects of nitrate : phosphate supply ratio and irradiance on the C : N : P stoichiometry of Chaetoceros muelleri
TLDR
The extent to which the draw-down ratio can vary from 16 : 1 in batch cultures of Chaetoceros muelleri grown under two irradiances is examined, and the NO3 − to PO4 3− draw- down ratio differed significantly from the Redfield ratio.
Phosphorus and nitrogen in a monomictic freshwater lake: employing cyanobacterial bioreporters to gain new insights into nutrient bioavailability
Summary 1. It is an uncontested paradigm that an adequate supply of the macronutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is critical for maintaining phytoplankton primary production in aquatic
Cellular N:P ratio of Microcystis as an indicator of nutrient limitation—implications and applications
TLDR
It is suggested that cellular N:P ratio is a reliable indicator of nutrient limitation for Microcystis, and the mass ratio always exceeded 7 during the period from July to November, indicating that Micro Cystis in Lake Taihu is P limited.
Multiple environmental controls on phytoplankton growth strategies determine adaptive responses of the N : P ratio.
TLDR
A spatially variable lower limit on adaptive rRNA:protein allocation is determined on the relationship between the largest cellular P and N pools, which suggests that additional contributions from phospholipid and phosphorus storage compounds play a fundamental role in determining the marine biogeochemical cycling of these elements.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 149 REFERENCES
GROWTH RATE VARIATION IN THE N:P REQUIREMENT RATIO OF PHYTOPLANKTON 1
TLDR
There is no theoretical or experimental evidence to support the idea that the ratio of subsistence N and P cell quotas is equal to Rc over the range of growth rates, or that the subsistence quota ratio equals the ratioof the N andP cell quotas minus a storage fraction.
Non-Redfield carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Arctic: Effects of ecosystem structure and dynamics
The C:N ratio is a critical parameter used in both global ocean carbon models and field studies to understand carbon and nutrient cycling as well as to estimate exported carbon from the euphotic
Phosphate utilization by an oceanic diatom in phosphorus limited chemostat culture
TLDR
Thalassiosira pseudonana from the oligotrophic waters of the central North Pacific Ocean was grown in phosphorus-limited chemostat culture and several chemical composition of the cells, expressed as ratios, was compared with that of nitrogen-limited cultures, which emerged as diagnostic indicators of phosphorus-starvation vs. nitrogen-deficiency.
Effect of CO2 concentration on C:N:P ratio in marine phytoplankton: A species comparison
The effect of variable concentrations of dissolved molecular carbon dioxide, [CO2,aq], on C:N:P ratios in marine phytoplankton was studied in batch cultures under high light, nutrient‐replete
PHYTOPLANKTON LIPIDS: INTERSPECIFIC DIFFERENCES AND EFFECTS OF NITRATE, SILICATE AND LIGHT‐DARK CYCLES 1
TLDR
Nitrate replenishment in a nitrogen starved culture of Oocystis polymorpha Groover & Bold showed that the excess cellular lipids do not rapidly disappear during recovery, until cell division occurs.
The stoichiometry of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particulate matter of lakes and oceans
TLDR
The relative uniformity of marine C : N : P composition (compared to lakes) at the Redfield ratio suggests that marine plankton cannot be as severely, or as frequently, limited by N and P as lake plankton, and the paradigm of N limitation in the oceans requires qualification.
Partitioning of nitrogen and carbon in cultures of the marine diatom Thalassiosira fluviatilis supplied with nitrate, ammonium, or urea
TLDR
Small or negligible differences in growth rates, average cell size, yields in cell numbers and total cell volumes were found in cultures of Thalassiosira fluviatilis inriched with nitrate, ammonium, or urea, but urea was not accumlated internally.
VARIABILITY IN RATIOS OF PHYTOPLANKTON CARBON AND RNA TO ATP AND CHLOROPHYLL A IN BATCH AND CONTINUOUS CULTURES 1, 2
TLDR
The results and additional data in the literature indicate that phytoplankton C and RNA concentrations can be estimated to within a factor of two by multiplying ATP concentrations by 311 and 35, respectively, in N limited systems, and by 341 and 36, respectively in PO43‐ limited systems.
Chemical characterization of three large oceanic diatoms: potential impact on water column chemistry
Three large diatoms, Stephanopyxispalrneriana (Greville) Grunow, Pseudoquinardia recta von Stosch, and Navicula sp. (cell volumes 1.15 X 105 to 3.83 X lo5 pm3), were isolated from the Sargasso Sea
...
...