Red blood cells mediated delivery of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine to primary macrophages: efficiency metabolism and activity against human immunodeficiency virus or herpes simplex virus.

Abstract

Red blood cells (RBC) may act as selective carriers of drugs to macrophages, an important reservoir of viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We therefore assessed the incorporation of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA), a potent inhibitor of HIV and HSV-1) into RBC, its delivery to macrophages and its activity against HIV or HSV-1. Loading of PMEA in artificially aged opsonized RBC affords significant levels of intracellular PMEA. RBC metabolize PMEA to its active congener PMEA-diphosphate, although with low efficiency. Exposure of macrophages to RBC-encapsulated PMEA inhibits the replication of both HIV and HSV-1 (about 90% inhibition at the highest RBC:macrophages ratios) even if RBC were removed before virus challenge. By contrast, the antiviral activity of free PMEA removed before virus challenge was irrelevant at concentrations up to 150-fold higher than the 50% effective concentration (EC50). Finally, the antiviral effect of RBC-encapsulated PMEA correlates with PMEA levels in macrophages about 500-fold higher than those achieved by free PMEA (at concentrations 10-fold higher than the EC50). The efficacy of RBC-mediated delivery to macrophages of PMEA (and perhaps of compounds with shorter intracellular half-lives) warrants further studies in infectious diseases involving phagocytizing cells as main targets of the pathogen.

Cite this paper

@article{Perno1997RedBC, title={Red blood cells mediated delivery of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine to primary macrophages: efficiency metabolism and activity against human immunodeficiency virus or herpes simplex virus.}, author={C F Perno and Nadia Santoro and Emanuela Balestra and Stefano Aquaro and Angela Cenci and Giuseppe Lazzarino and Donato Di Pierro and Barbara Tavazzi and Jan Balzarini and Enrico Garaci and Settimio Grimaldi and Raffaele Cali{\`o}}, journal={Antiviral research}, year={1997}, volume={33 3}, pages={153-64} }