Brief Background: Red clover is a legume, which like soy contains "phytoestrogens" (plant-based compounds structurally similar to estradiol, capable of binding to estrogen receptors as an agonist or antagonist). Red clover was traditionally used to treat asthma, pertussis, cancer, and gout. In modern times, isoflavone extracts of red clover are most often used to treat menopausal symptoms, as an alternative hormone replacement therapy, for hyperlipidemia, or to prevent osteoporosis. At this time, there are no high-quality human trials supporting the efficacy of red clover for any indication (1). Soy protein, another source of isoflavones, has been reported to significantly reduce serum lipid levels, but this benefit has not been demonstrated for red clover, and may be due to the presence of other constituents in soy (saponins, pectins, essential fatty acids).