In the present experiments, predictions of common path and recursive-reminding models of recognition (RG) and judgments of frequency (JOFs) were contrasted. The results indicated that each task is affected by study frequency, printed frequency, and associative connectivity. However, effect size analyses indicated that study frequency and item attributes show a double dissociation over tasks. Study frequency has a greater effect on JOFs than on RG, whereas printed frequency and associative connectivity have greater effects on RG than on JOFs. The recursive-reminding model predicts differential effects of study frequency, because it assumes that although both tasks are influenced by familiarity, JOF is more likely to be affected by recollective reminding as a procedure for encoding event frequency. Associative set size effects were absent in each task, suggesting that competitors play no role in either task.