Recurrent violations of invariant rules for offspring size: evidence from turtles and the implications for small clutch size models

Smith and Fretwell’s classic model predicts that parents can maximize fitness by dividing the energy available for reproduction into offspring of an optimal size. However, this model breaks down when clutch size is small (~1–10 offspring). Invariant rules are an extension of the Smith–Fretwell model, and these rules predict how offspring size will vary… (More)