Recurrent subacute post-viral onset of ataxia associated with a PRF1 mutation

@article{Dias2013RecurrentSP,
  title={Recurrent subacute post-viral onset of ataxia associated with a PRF1 mutation},
  author={Cristina Dias and Allison McDonald and Murat Sincan and Rosemarie Rupps and Thomas C. Markello and Ramona Salvarinova and Rui F Santos and Kamal Menghrajani and Chidi Ahaghotu and Darren P. Sutherland and Edgardo S. Fortuno and Tobias R. Kollmann and Michelle K Demos and Jan M. Friedman and David Paul Speert and William A. Gahl and Cornelius F. Boerkoel},
  journal={European Journal of Human Genetics},
  year={2013},
  volume={21},
  pages={1232-1239}
}
Inflammation is an important contributor to pediatric and adult neurodegeneration. Understanding the genetic determinants of neuroinflammation provides valuable insight into disease mechanism. We characterize a disorder of recurrent immune-mediated neurodegeneration. We report two sisters who presented with neurodegeneration triggered by infections. The proband, a previously healthy girl, presented at 22.5 months with ataxia and dysarthria following mild gastroenteritis. MRI at onset showed a… 

Histopathologic Correlates of Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Isolated to the Central Nervous System

TLDR
3 patients with CNS-isolated familial HLH presented with a variety of neurological symptoms and underwent brain biopsies for multifocal enhancing supratentorial and infratentorial lesions, with no evidence of systemic disease except decreased NK-cell function.

Predominant Neurologic Manifestations Seen in a Patient With a Biallelic Perforin1 Mutation (PRF1; p.R225W).

TLDR
A case with FHL2 in whom hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis was a presenting manifestation which responded to specific therapy, however, there was isolated central nervous system relapse while patient was in remission and off therapy.

Neuroinflammatory Disease as an Isolated Manifestation of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

TLDR
HLH-directed therapy followed by HSCT seems to improve survival and outcome and isolated CNS-HLH is a rare and often overlooked cause of inflammatory brain disease.

RF1 Gene Mutation in Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis 2: A Family Report and Literature Review

TLDR
According to the clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and results of the family molecular genetic testing, the probands could be clinically diagnosed as FHL2, an autosomal recessive family with familial hemophagocytic syndrome.

Neuroinflammation Associated With Inborn Errors of Immunity

TLDR
This review focuses on the signs and symptoms of neuroinflammation that have been reported in association with established pathogenic variants in immune genes and suggests the following subdivision based on proposed underlying mechanisms: autoinflammatory disorders, tolerance defects, and immunodeficiency disorders.

PGPM_A_326921 1637..1645

TLDR
Gene mutation analysis was performed on a family with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis to provide an accurate etiological diagnosis, leading to genetic counseling for the family members, who could be clinically diagnosed as FHL2.

Genetic studies of susceptibility to inflammation, autoimmunity, and hematological malignancy

TLDR
These findings suggest the existence of IFN-γ-independent mechanisms for the development of HLH, and display the power of high-throughput sequencing in diagnostics of individuals affected by severe inflammation, autoimmunity, and hematological malignancies.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with cure and durable remission of late‐onset primary isolated central nervous system hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

TLDR
While patients with systemic HLH and active CNS disease have relatively poorer outcomes, a high index of suspicion may aid with early diagnosis of primary isolated CNS HLH; prompt treatment with HSCT may be associated with improved cure and durable remission of this rare disease.

Spectrum of Atypical Clinical Presentations in Patients with Biallelic PRF1 Missense Mutations

TLDR
Perforin, encoded by PRF1, is a pore‐forming protein crucial for lymphocyte cytotoxicity that invariably result in early‐onset hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), termed familial HLH type 2 (FHL2).

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TLDR
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TLDR
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