Interstitial lung diseases—can pathologists arrive at an etiology-based diagnosis? A critical update
- Helmut H. Popper
- Virchows Archiv
To evaluate the role of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as a possible cause of recurrent pulmonary disease, 30 children, aged 1 to 18 years, were studied prospectively with esophageal function tests. These included esophagram (30 patients), esophageal manometry (29 patients), pH probe (Tuttle) test (29 patients), and esophagoscopy with esophageal biopsy (23 patients). The patients studied had either chronic asthma or two or more documented pneumonias within a one-year period. Nineteen (63%) had GER based on two or more positive tests. Eighteen had positive Tuttle tests; 13 had abnormal manometry studies; nine had esophagitis on biopsy; six had esophagitis on esophagoscopy; and five had reflux on esophagram. Of those with GER, 17 had a history of nocturnal cough and eight vomited during infancy. Children with recurrent pulmonary disease should have esophageal function testing to exclude GER as the cause.