Recurrent furunculosis: a review of the literature

@article{deMos2012RecurrentFA,
  title={Recurrent furunculosis: a review of the literature},
  author={M. deMos and Michael Patrick McLeod and K Nouri},
  journal={British Journal of Dermatology},
  year={2012},
  volume={167}
}
Background  Community‐associated methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA‐MRSA) is increasing in incidence and manifests as skin and soft tissue infections including furuncles. The majority of studies have focused on the epidemiology of single furuncles and not recurrent disease. There is a lack of data concerning the incidence of furunculosis outside the U.S.A. 
Community‐acquired skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus: What is the role of the Panton‐Valentine leukocidin toxin?
TLDR
The objective of the study was the identification of the role of the toxin Panton‐Valentine leukocidin in community‐acquired skin infections caused by S. aureus.
Suppressive therapy using azithromycin in 2 rare cases of recurrent staphylococcal infections.
Furuncles and Carbuncles
TLDR
Recurrent furunculosis is the sequential occurrence of many furuncles and Nasal colonization with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) interspersing the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin is a very strong risk factor for recurrent furun tuberculosis.
Recurrent Furunculosis — CA-MRSA Plays a Major Role
When a hair follicle becomes infected, a furuncle may result. Optimal treatment consists of incising the furuncle and expressing the infecting
Common Skin Bacterial Infections
Common skin bacterial infections include superficial pyodermas (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncle and furunculosis, carbuncle, abscesses, suppurative paronychia), due to Staphylococcus aureus with an
Staphylococcus aureus and recurrent furunculosis: a growing hidden menace?
TLDR
The authors raise important questions about the future global trends of staphylococcal infections, as in Europe and elsewhere, in contrast to the U.S.A., CA-MRSA is less prevalent and there appears to be a higher frequency of PVL MSSA, although there is a clear need for more epidemiological research.
Recurrent furunculosis in returning travelers: newly defined entity.
TLDR
PTRF should be defined as a clinical entity with prolonged travel to the Tropics being its major risk factor, and a transient immune change in a subpopulation of travelers ignites a series of recurrent furuncles, resolving upon restoration of normal immunity.
Recurrent furunculosis caused by a community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain belonging to the USA300 clone.
TLDR
The isolate may represent a persistent strain capable of surviving extensive antibiotic pressure or a persistent environmental reservoir that may be the source, possibly in the patient's household, from which bacteria were repeatedly introduced into the skin flora with subsequent infections.
Recurrent furunculosis: Efficacy of the CMC regimen — skin disinfection (chlorhexidine), local nasal antibiotic (mupirocin), and systemic antibiotic (clindamycin)
TLDR
There are 2 major routes involved in recurrent furunculosis: risk factors and staphylococcal colonization of close contacts and the CMC regimen is safe and effective, with 87% remission beyond 9 months.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 100 REFERENCES
Familial Furunculosis Associated with Community-Acquired Leukocidin-Positive Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST152
TLDR
PVL is associated with staphylococcal skin and pulmonary infections and family transmission and spread of community-acquired leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus ST152 isolates associated with severe clinical symptoms are herein described.
Strategies for the management of recurrent furunculosis.
TLDR
This work presents various strategies for treatment and prevention of recurrent furunculosis, and suggests Gram stain is helpful in choosing an appropriate one.
Strategies for the management of recurrent furunculosis.
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  • Medicine
    Southern medical journal
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TLDR
I present various strategies for treatment and prevention of recurrent furunculosis, and Gram stain is helpful in choosing an appropriate one.
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TLDR
There is no reported study of the specific clinical manifestations and outcome of skin infections caused by the clone ST80‐IV, using strict definitions of skin diseases.
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TLDR
The precise role of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and nasal carriage in common skin infections remains unclear and further research is needed to establish a causative mechanism.
Risk factors of recurrent furunculosis.
TLDR
Logistic regression analysis revealed that the most important independent predictor of recurrence was a positive family history, and the other independent predictors were anemia, previous antibiotic therapy, diabetes mellitus, previous hospitalization, multiplicity of lesions, personal hygiene and associated skin diseases.
Association of Recurrent Furunculosis with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and the Genetic Background of Staphylococcus aureus
TLDR
A case is made for the determination of luk-PV in recurrent soft tissue infections with methicillin-sensitive as well as methiillin-resistant S. aureus.
The association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying panton-valentine leukocidin genes and the development of deep-seated follicular infection.
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TLDR
PVL gene-positive S. aureus strains are involved in the development of multiple furuncles with more-intense erythema, particularly in healthy young adults, while PVL gene-negative strains were isolated from patients with various systemic complications, including diabetes, leukemia, and autoimmune diseases.
Recurrent staphylococcal furunculosis. Bacteriological findings and epidemiology in 100 cases.
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TLDR
An epidemiological study revealed that recurrent furunculosis mostly has its origin outside hospital and phage group II strains were isolated mainly from patients after supposed contamination outside hospital.
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