AIM The aim of this paper was to evaluate correlation between cyst recurrence and some cyst characteristics after sclerotherapy of non-neoplastic ovarian cyst with alcohol-erythromycin combination. METHODS Fifty two cases of simple ovarian cysts were subjected to sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin. Two patients were excluded due to suspicious cytologic result. All patients were followed-up monthly with color Doppler ultrasonography for over 12 months. Failure of procedure was considered if recurrent cyst diameter exceeds 5 centimeters detected by ultrasound. Cyst size, volume and color of aspirate, steroid hormone, and tumor marker levels of the cyst fluid were correlated to the recurrence rate. RESULTS The fluid of cyst was serous in 32 cases and dark chocolate-colored in twenty cases. Cytological analyses of thirty cysts were acellular sediment, twenty were suitable with endometrioma and two were reported as suspicious. At 12-month follow-up, 12 cyst recurrences was detected. There was no difference in aspirated cyst volume, cyst size and FSH and LH content of recurrent and resolved cyst. The cyst wall thickness of recurrent cyst was higher than that of resolved cyst (P<0.001). The mean estradiol and progesterone concentrations of resolved cysts were significantly higher than that of recurrent cysts on the other hand, the mean CA125 levels in recurrent cysts (347.9±204.4) was significantly higher as compared to the mean CA125 concentrations of resolved cyst (16.75±22.45). CONCLUSION Aspiration and sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin yielded a relatively high recurrence rate in cyst with a bloody aspirate and high CA125 levels in cyst fluid.