Device configurations that enable a unidirectional propagation of carriers in a semiconductor are fundamental components for electronic and optoelectronic applications. To realize such devices, however, it is generally required to have complex processes to make p-n or Schottky junctions. Here we report on a unidirectional propagation effect due to a self-induced compositional variation in GaAsSb nanowires (NWs). The individual GaAsSb NWs exhibit a highly reproducible rectifying behavior, where the rectifying direction is determined by the NW growth direction. Combining the results from confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and electrical measurements, the origin of the rectifying behavior is found to be associated with a self-induced variation of the Sb and the carrier concentrations in the NW. To demonstrate the usefulness of these GaAsSb NWs for device applications, NW-based photodetectors and logic circuits have been made.