Sexually mature transgenic American chestnut trees via embryogenic suspension-based transformation
Lepidopteran insects are major defoliating pests of soybean in the southeastern United States. Soybean plants transgenic for a nativecryIA(b) gene fromBacillus thuringiensis var.kurstaki HD-1 were obtained. Embryogenic cultures were induced by plating cotyledons on a Murashige and Skoog-based medium supplemented with 40 mg/liter of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The embryogenic cultures were maintained in liquid medium containing 5 mg/liter 2,4-D. These cultures were subjected to microprojectile bombardment, followed by selection on 50 mg/liter hygromycin. Resistant embryogenic cell lines were transferred to growth regulator-free medium to permit recovery of mature somatic embryos. After a desiccation period, the somatic embryos were returned to growth regulator-free medium for conversion into plants. Southern hybridization analysis verified transformation. Feeding assays of T1 plants from one cell line deterred feeding, development, and survival of velvetbean caterpillar at a level comparable to that of GatIR81-296, a soybean breeding line with a high level of insect resistance. Reduced feeding on T1 plants correlated with the presence of the transgene.