OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of reconstruction of urothelium tissue in vivo using tissue-engineering technique. METHODS The urothelium cells were obtained from young rabbit, bladder by mechanical and enzyme digested methods. After expanded in vitro, the 4th to 5th generation urothelium cells were seeded onto the surface of 8 Polylatical/glycolic acid copolymer polymer, the polymer matrix without seeding cells served as control group. A total of 8 cell-polymer scaffolds and 4 simply scaffolds were separately implanted into subcutaneous pockets of athymic mice. The experiment groups included cell-polymer scaffolds 4 weeks and cell-polymer scaffolds 8 weeks. The control group included simply scaffold 4 weeks and simply scaffold 8 weeks. After 4 and 8 weeks, the specimens were obtained and examined by gross inspection, histologically and immunohistochemically. RESULTS The results of HE and Masson staining showed that the polymer were covered by urothelium cells layers and cells layers increased markley in experimental group. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that the cells were stained positively for anti-cytokeratins (AE1/AE3) in experimental group. Fiber tissue deposition were found on the surface of polymers in control group by HE and Masson staining. Immunocytochemical staining of implants showed the negative result for cytokeratins in control group. CONCLUSION It is feasibility that reconstruction of urothelium tissue using tissue-engineering technique,which provides basic understandings for further development of the bladder and ureteral tissue engineered research.