Although recent reports have emphasised free microsurgical transfer for reconstruction of extensive defects in the scalp, in our experience a carefully planned scalp flap is a simpler and safer method than a free transfer. Twenty-one patients with defects as large as 10%-60% of the scalp surface area were reconstructed; the calvarium was resected in five cases and the dura mater in two. In 18 cases the flaps were based on a single pedicle: the superficial temporal artery. In three cases the blood supply of the flaps was based on three major homolateral arteries: the superficial temporal, the posterior auricular, and the occipital. The blood supply of all scalp flaps was based on the interconnected network of the aponeurotic plexus and the pedicles were included into flap in 18 cases. The principles of fasciocutaneous flaps were applied for all 21 scalp flaps. The reconstruction of the skull was delayed in all cases, and the dura was replaced by free autogenous periosteum. The donor area was covered with a skin graft in all cases. In all patients the aesthetic and functional results were considered excellent by them and by us. There were no postoperative complications.