The reconstitution of different immunocyte subsets after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), follows different timelines. We prospectively investigated changes in lymphocyte subsets after HSCT and their associations with primary diagnosis, conditioning regimen, and HSCT type in event-free patients. A total of 95 patients (48 with acute myeloid leukemia, 22 with acute lymphoid leukemia, and 25 with myelodysplastic syndrome) who underwent allogeneic HSCT (34 sibling matched, 37 unrelated matched, and 24 haploidentical HSCT) but did not experience any events such as relapse or death were enrolled in this study. Lymphocyte subpopulations (T cells, helper/inducer T cells, cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, memory T cells, regulatory T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NK-T cells, and B cells) were quantified by flow cytometry of peripheral blood from recipients 7 days before and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after HSCT. Leukocyte counts recovered within 1 month after HSCT. However, the number of T and B lymphocytes recovered at 2 months after HSCT. NK cell counts recovered shortly after haploidentical HSCT. However, T lymphocytes and their subpopulations showed delayed recovery after haploidentical HSCT. Lymphocyte subsets showed different sequential patterns according to HSCT type but no differences were seen according to primary diagnosis or conditioning regimen.