Reconsidering the Safety in Numbers Effect for Vulnerable Road Users: An Application of Agent-Based Modeling

  title={Reconsidering the Safety in Numbers Effect for Vulnerable Road Users: An Application of Agent-Based Modeling},
  author={Jason Thompson and Giovanni Savino and Mark R. Stevenson},
  journal={Traffic Injury Prevention},
  pages={147 - 153}
Objective: Increasing levels of active transport provide benefits in relation to chronic disease and emissions reduction but may be associated with an increased risk of road trauma. The safety in numbers (SiN) effect is often regarded as a solution to this issue; however, the mechanisms underlying its influence are largely unknown. We aimed to (1) replicate the SiN effect within a simple, simulated environment and (2) vary bicycle density within the environment to better understand the… 
Evidence for the ‘safety in density’ effect for cyclists: validation of agent-based modelling results
These results successfully validate those observed under simulated conditions, supporting evidence of a proposed causal mechanism related to safety in density rather than SiN, per se, and suggesting that increased cyclist safety could be achieved through directing cyclists towards focused, strategic corridors rather than dispersed across a network.
Bicycle-Bicycle Accidents Emerge from Encounters: An Agent-Based Approach
The results affirm both hypotheses: First, cyclist encounters exhibit a linear relationship to accidents and thus suggest being the true population of bicycle-bicycle accidents and secondly, flows show a relationship in the form of a second-order polynomial function with encounters as well as accidents.
Safety-in-Numbers : What ’ s behind the effect ?
This issue of the Big Impact features two studies (one focusing on bicyclists, the other on motorcyclists) that focus on the safety in numbers paradigm; a widely held view in many areas of transport safety – particularly for vulnerableRoad users namely, that the greater the number of vulnerable road users the safer the environment.
Safety in Numbers for Bicyclists at Urban Intersections
This study assesses the estimated crashes per bicyclist and per vehicle as a function of bicyclist and vehicle traffic and tests whether greater traffic reduces the per-vehicle crash rate, a
The impact of automated transit, pedestrian, and bicycling facilities on urban travel patterns
ABSTRACT This article reports on an integrated modeling exercise, conducted on behalf of the US Federal Highway Administration, on the potential for frequent automated transit shuttles (‘community
Safety-in-numbers: An updated meta-analysis of estimates.


"Safety in Numbers" re-examined: can we make valid or practical inferences from available evidence?
A Risk‐Based Method for Modeling Traffic Fatalities
It is found that in the absence of road safety interventions, the historical trend of initially rising and then falling fatalities observed in industrialized nations occurred only if motorization was through car ownership.
The non-linearity of risk and the promotion of environmentally sustainable transport.
  • R. Elvik
  • Biology
    Accident; analysis and prevention
  • 2009
The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature
Evidence is beginning to accumulate that purpose-built bicycle-specific facilities reduce crashes and injuries among cyclists, providing the basis for initial transportation engineering guidelines for cyclist safety.
How to make more cycling good for road safety?
Experimenting Situated Cellular Agents in Indoor Scenario: Pedestrian Dynamics during Lecture Hall Evacuation
A use case of application of SCA approach that can contribute to the employment of agent-based technology within pedestrian dynamics according to an approach that takes into account the multidisciplinary requirement of this research context and relevance of compliance between modeling and computational approaches is provided.
Agent-Based Modeling of the Spread of Influenza-Like Illness in an Emergency Department: A Simulation Study
An agent based modeling framework is developed in order to simulate the spread of influenza virus infection on a layout based on a representative hospital emergency department in Winnipeg, Canada, and suggests that patient-oriented infection control policies tend to have a larger effect than policies that target healthcare workers.
Assessing the Potential Benefits of the Motorcycle Autonomous Emergency Braking Using Detailed Crash Reconstructions
The feasibility and quantitative potential benefits of a motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) system in fatal rear-end crashes were investigated with promising results, but this technology is not mature yet for PTW application.
A GPS-based bicycle route choice model for San Francisco, California
A route choice model with GPS data collected from smartphone users in San Francisco revealed that bicycle lanes were preferred to other facility types, especially by infrequent cyclists, and steep slopes were disfavored.