Reconsidering Relationships among Stem and Crown Group Pinaceae: Oldest Record of the Genus Pinus from the Early Cretaceous of Yorkshire, United Kingdom

@article{Ryberg2012ReconsideringRA,
  title={Reconsidering Relationships among Stem and Crown Group Pinaceae: Oldest Record of the Genus Pinus from the Early Cretaceous of Yorkshire, United Kingdom},
  author={Patricia E. Ryberg and Gar W Rothwell and Ruth A. Stockey and Jason Hilton and Gene Mapes and James B. Riding},
  journal={International Journal of Plant Sciences},
  year={2012},
  volume={173},
  pages={917 - 932}
}
This study describes a specimen that extends the oldest fossil evidence of Pinus L. to the Early Cretaceous Wealden Formation of Yorkshire, UK (131–129 million years ago), and prompts a critical reevaluation of criteria that are employed to identify crown group genera of Pinaceae from anatomically preserved seed cones. The specimen, described as Pinus yorkshirensis sp. nov., is conical, 5 cm long, and 3.1 cm in maximum diameter. Bract/scale complexes are helically arranged and spreading… 
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TLDR
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The symmetrical cone shape, nonreflexed cone base, flattened apophyses, cone serotiny, and seed wing length distinguish these cones from P. contorta, a new species of Pinus subgenus Pinus Subsection Contortae, Pinus matthewsii sp.
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