Recommendations for multimodal noninvasive and invasive screening for detection of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a position statement of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease.

@article{Zivadinov2014RecommendationsFM,
  title={Recommendations for multimodal noninvasive and invasive screening for detection of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a position statement of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease.},
  author={Robert Zivadinov and Stefano Bastianello and Michael D. Dake and H{\'e}ctor Ferral and E. Mark Haacke and Ziv J. Haskal and David E. Hubbard and Nikolaos Liasis and Kenneth D Mandato and Salvatore J. A. Sclafani and Adnan H. Siddiqui and Marian Simka and Paolo Zamboni},
  journal={Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR},
  year={2014},
  volume={25 11},
  pages={
          1785-94.e17
        }
}
Under the auspices of the International Society for Neurovascular Disease (ISNVD), four expert panel committees were created from the ISNVD membership between 2011 and 2012 to determine and standardize noninvasive and invasive imaging protocols for detection of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). The committees created working groups on color Doppler ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, catheter venography (CV), and… CONTINUE READING
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