Recombination in AIDS viruses

  title={Recombination in AIDS viruses},
  author={David L. Robertson and Beatrice H. Hahn and Paul M. Sharp},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that evolves during the course of HIV infection. Here we describe examples of both HIV-1… 

Recombination and Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 and Enteroviruses

It is believed that this is the primary mechanism of reassortment for viruses such as Influenza A and Rotavirus, and mechanisms to physically link together two genomes of separate lineages are required to produce recombinants.

Evidence for Selection of more Adapted Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Recombinant Strains in a Dually Infected Transfusion Recipient

It is proposed that the higher amount of viral diversity observed in HIV-1 multi-infection events, as in the case of the dually infected patient, might contribute to maximizing selective advantage and possibly minimizing immune response.

Recombinant Forms of HIV-2

All five isolates of HIV-2 recombinant forms identified to date are chimeras of group A and B strains, which means four are classified as a CRF and the remaining one is a URF.

Intercompartmental Recombination of HIV-1 Contributes to env Intrahost Diversity and Modulates Viral Tropism and Sensitivity to Entry Inhibitors

These analyses demonstrate that intercompartment recombination is a fundamental evolutionary mechanism that helps to shape HIV-1 env intrahost diversity in natural infection and represents definitive proof that recombination can generate novel combinations of phenotypic traits which differ subtly from those of parental strains.

Mechanistic features of recombination in HIV.

It is clear that further studies are needed in order to evaluate whether a prevailing mechanism exists for in vivo recombination, and these studies will also be essential for understanding how the underlying mechanisms of recombination contribute to the evolution of HIV.

Extensive Intrasubtype Recombination in South African Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Infections

ABSTRACT Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains containing sequences from different viral genetic subtypes (intersubtype) and different lineages from within the same subtype

Identifying the Important HIV-1 Recombination Breakpoints

These findings provide the first clear indication of the existence of a specific portion of the genome that deviates from a probabilistic null model for recombination in regions of the HIV-1 genome where recombination has a tendency to convey a selective advantage to the virus.

In Vitro Intersubtype Recombinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Comparison to Recent and Circulating In Vivo Recombinant Forms

HIV-1 recombinants generated from these dual infections may be used as a model for in vivo intersubtype recombination and for the design of various diagnostic assays and vaccine constructs.

The extent of homologous recombination in members of the genus Flavivirus.

It is proposed that the difference between the mosquito- and tick-borne viruses can be accounted for by their differing modes of transmission, whilst the variation among the mosquitoes-borne flaviviruses reflects both the ecology of the particular host and vector species and also bias in the sampling process.



Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology

The results indicate that the genetic and biological diversity of HIV-2 is far greater than previously appreciated and suggest that there may be subtype-specific differences in virus biology.

Recombination between human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) type 1 and 2 results in generation of defective hybrid viruses.

Analysis of viral particles by hybridization revealed the presence of viral RNA, however viral replication was not evident, suggesting possible generation of replication-deficient hybrid viruses as a result of recombination between HIV-1 and -2.

Human infection by genetically diverse SIVSM-related HIV-2 in West Africa

It is indicated that HIV-2, SIVSM and SIVMAC comprise a single, highly diverse group of lentiviruses which cannot be separated into distinct phylogenetic lineages according to species of origin.

Genomic cloning and complete sequence analysis of a highly divergent African human immunodeficiency virus isolate

Analysis of the complete sequence of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolate (Ant70) obtained from a Cameroonian patient indicates that this virus is the most divergent strain within the HIV-1

Selection, recombination, and G----A hypermutation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes

It is shown that multiple passages of an HIV-1 isolate on peripheral blood mononuclear cells resulted in the outgrowth of very minor forms.

Genetic variation in HTLV-III/LAV over time in patients with AIDS or at risk for AIDS.

The repeated isolation from a given individual of only highly related viruses raises the possibility that some type of interference mechanism may prevent simultaneous infection by more than one major genotypic form of the virus.

In vivo sequence variation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env gene: evidence for recombination among variants found in a single individual.

It is demonstrated that recombination may contribute significantly to the generation of diversity among HIV variants within a single individual.

Mosaic genome structure of simian immunodeficiency virus from west African green monkeys.

Results indicate that African green monkeys have been infected with SIVAGM for very long periods of time, and that recombination and cross‐species transmission in the wild have contributed to the genetic complexity of primate lentiviruses.

Rates and dates of divergence between AIDS virus nucleotide sequences.

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Phenotype-associated env gene variation among eight related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clones: evidence for in vivo recombination and determinants of cytotropism outside the V3 domain

The nucleotide sequences of the env genes of eight phenotypically heterogeneous human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clones recovered from a single individual within a 3-week period were compared and demonstrated that the HIV-1 env gene determined the capacity to induce syncytia and tropism for T-cell lines.