Recognizing the Presidents

@article{Roediger2016RecognizingTP,
  title={Recognizing the Presidents},
  author={Henry L. Roediger and K. Andrew DeSoto},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  year={2016},
  volume={27},
  pages={644 - 650}
}
Studies over the past 40 years have shown that Americans can recall about half the U.S. presidents. Do people know the presidents even though they are unable to access them for recall? We investigated this question using the powerful cues of a recognition test. Specifically, we tested the ability of 326 online subjects to recognize U.S. presidents when presented with their full names among various types of lures. The hit rate for presidential recognition was .88, well above the proportion… 

Figures from this paper

Remembering the Presidents
Here we report research on how important historical figures—presidents of the United States—are remembered and forgotten. When students are given 5 min to recall presidents (in order, if possible),
Collective memory for American leaders: Measuring recognition for the names and faces of the US presidents
TLDR
Together, the studies show that Americans’ memory for the faces of the presidents is somewhat worse than theirMemory for the names of the president but still follows the same pattern, indicating that collective memories contain more than just verbal information.
Remembering the Leaders of China
TLDR
It is found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework, and a relation between a leader’s recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet was found.
Collective Narcissism: Americans Exaggerate the Role of Their Home State in Appraising U.S. History
TLDR
This study shows that biases that influence individual remembering also influence collective remembering, and argues that this ethnocentric bias is due to ego protection, selective memory retrieval processes involving the availability heuristic, and poor statistical reasoning.
On the adaptive nature of memory-based false belief
TLDR
It is predicted that since memory-based false beliefs are consistent with abstract knowledge that is consisted with prototypical patterns and organization found in the real world, false beliefs work adaptively in making inferences about environmental information in thereal world.
Toward a Historicism of Setting: Hamilton and American History
ABSTRACT:This essay analyses the historical setting of Lin-Manuel Miranda's Hamilton: An American Musical, using the play as a test case for a more general approach to historical drama. It suggests
Maradona in our minds: The FIFA World Cup as a way to address collective memory properties
TLDR
The results suggest that informal collective memories share common attributes with more formal collective memories such as those found in presidents or wars, and that collective memory properties may be independent of the conditions under which their acquisition occurs.
The effect of delayed judgments of learning on retention
TLDR
It is concluded that only some delayed JOLs elicit covert retrieval attempts, a pattern supporting the truncated search hypothesis.
The universal decay of collective memory and attention
TLDR
The attention received by cultural products—including scientific papers, patents, songs, movies and biographies—decays following a biexponential function, suggesting that collective memory follows a universal pattern.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 37 REFERENCES
Forgetting the presidents
TLDR
These studies show that forgetting from collective memory can be studied empirically, as with forgetting in other forms of memory, and fit forgetting functions to the data to predict when six relatively recent presidents will recede in memory to the level of most middle presidents.
Remembering the Leaders of China
TLDR
It is found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework, and a relation between a leader’s recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet was found.
Recognition failure of recallable words in semantic memory
In an experiment in which there was no study phase, 54 subjects were tested for recognition of famous surnames and then were tested for cued recall of the same surnames. Subjects failed to recognize
Evidence for similar principles in episodic and semantic memory: The presidential serial position function
  • I. Neath
  • Psychology
    Memory & cognition
  • 2010
TLDR
A local distinctiveness model of memory, SIMPLE, successfully fit the presidential data using two underlying dimensions: one corresponding to item (or presidential) distinctiveness and the other to order (or positional) distinctness.
Subjective confidence in one's answers: the consensuality principle.
  • A. Koriat
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2008
TLDR
The results argue against a direct-access view of confidence judgments and suggest that such judgments will be accurate only as long as people's responses are by and large correct across the sampled items, thus stressing the criticality of a representative design.
Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists.
False memories—either remembering events that never happened, or remembering them quite differently from the way they happened—have recently captured the attention of both psychologists and the
SOCIAL CHANGE AND COLLECTIVE MEMORY: THE DEMOCRATIZATION OF GEORGE WASHINGTON*
Between 1800 and 1865, Americans remembered George Washington as a man of remoteness, gentility, and flawless virtue; after 1865 they began to remember him as an ordinary, imperfect man with whom
The self-consistency model of subjective confidence.
TLDR
Simulation and empirical results suggest that response speed is a frugal cue for self-consistency, and its validity depends on the validity of self- Consistency in predicting performance.
Positive and Negative Correlations Between Confidence and Accuracy for the Same Events in Recognition of Categorized Lists
TLDR
Two experiments show that positive and negative confidence-accuracy correlations can be observed using a single procedure and the same materials, and indicate that one should be cautious about relying on confidence of recognition when rememberers must decide among highly similar events.
How quickly we forget
TLDR
When it is possible, as in the study by Roediger and DeSoto on page 1106 of this issue, combining both approaches is the most productive strategy.
...
...