Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: a new perspective

  title={Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: a new perspective},
  author={Larry R. Squire and John T. Wixted and Robert E Clark},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
Recognition memory is widely viewed as consisting of two components, recollection and familiarity, which have been proposed to be dependent on the hippocampus and the adjacent perirhinal cortex, respectively. Here, we propose an alternative perspective: we suggest that the methods traditionally used to separate recollection from familiarity instead separate strong memories from weak memories. A review of work with humans, monkeys and rodents finds evidence for familiarity signals (as well as… 
The medial temporal lobe and the attributes of memory
It is argued that retrieval-related activity in the hippocampus is not modulated by differences in the undifferentiated memory strength elicited by test items, and hippocampal activity is more likely to be sensitive to recollection success or to the amount of contextual information that is recollected in response to a test item.
ROC in animals: Uncovering the neural substrates of recollection and familiarity in episodic recognition memory
  • M. Sauvage
  • Psychology, Biology
    Consciousness and Cognition
  • 2010
Towards a functional organization of episodic memory in the medial temporal lobe
Recognition memory and the hippocampus: A test of the hippocampal contribution to recollection and familiarity.
Assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal lesions on recognition memory tests that differ in the extent to which recollection and familiarity contribute to the recognition decision suggests that the hippocampus supports both recollection andamiliarity.
Item memory, context memory and the hippocampus: fMRI evidence
Using unitization as encoding strategy in associative recognition memory : behavioral, fMRI, and ERP evidence
Four experiments in which retrieval processes for novel units were compared to those involved for arbitrary associations, pre-existing units and single items provide preliminary evidence that arranging two unrelated objects as a scene can enhance familiarity for associations suggesting that not only contiguous entities can be perceived as units.


The medial temporal lobe and recognition memory.
Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological studies of humans, monkeys, and rats indicates that different subregions of the MTL make distinct contributions to recollection and familiarity; the data suggest that the hippocampus is critical for recollection but not familiarity.
Recollection-like memory retrieval in rats is dependent on the hippocampus
Following selective damage to the hippocampus the ROC curve became entirely symmetrical and remained curvilinear, supporting the view that the hippocampus specifically mediates the capacity for recollection.
Recognition memory: What are the roles of the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus?
This work focuses on the central issue in this dispute — the relative contributions of the hippocampus and the perirhinal cortex to recognition memory.
Remembering episodes: a selective role for the hippocampus during retrieval
It is shown that activity in the hippocampus increased only when retrieval was accompanied by conscious recollection of the learning episode, indicating that the hippocampus selectively supports the retrieval of episodic memories.
A critical role for the anterior hippocampus in relational memory: Evidence from an fMRI study comparing associative and item recognition
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), it is shown that hippocampal activation is modulated by the extent to which a retrieval task depends on relational processing.
A Dissociation of Encoding and Retrieval Processes in the Human Hippocampus
High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to show that distinct subregions of the hippocampus are differentially involved in encoding and retrieval, and regions early in the hippocampal circuit were selectively active during episodic memory formation.
Interleaving brain systems for episodic and recognition memory