Recognition Memory, Familiarity, and Déjà vu Experiences

  title={Recognition Memory, Familiarity, and D{\'e}j{\`a} vu Experiences},
  author={Anne M. Cleary},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  pages={353 - 357}
  • A. Cleary
  • Published 1 October 2008
  • Psychology
  • Current Directions in Psychological Science
Déjà vu occurs when one feels as though a situation is familiar, despite evidence that the situation could not have been experienced before. Until recently, the topic of déjà vu remained largely outside of the realm of mainstream scientific investigation. However, interest in investigating the nature of déjà vu is growing among researchers of cognitive processes. In some cases, déjà vu may be understood within the context of research on human recognition memory. Specifically, déjà vu may… 

Figures from this paper

Déjà Vu: An Illusion of Prediction

The results suggest that feelings of premonition during déjà vu occur and can be illusory, and metacognitive bias brought on by the state itself may explain the peculiar association between déjé vu and the feeling of pre monition.

Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli

It is suggested that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signaling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterized by standard recognition memory task performance.

Can déjà vu result from similarity to a prior experience? Support for the similarity hypothesis of déjà vu

This work used a variation of the recognition-without-recall method of studying familiarity to examine instances in which participants failed to recall a studied scene in response to a configurally similar novel test scene and found that resemblance to a previously viewed scene increased both feelings of familiarity and of déjà vu.

A postdictive bias associated with déjà vu.

A new finding is presented in which reports of déjà vu are associated not only with a predictive bias, but also with a postdictive bias, whereby people are more likely to feel that an event unfolded as expected after the event prompted déjaa vu than after it did not.

Digging into Déjà Vu

Déjà vu and the feeling of prediction: an association with familiarity strength

Though the present study was mainly descriptive in characterising the interrelations between déjà vu, feelings of prediction, and familiarity, the full pattern points toward the possibility that high familiarity intensity may contribute to the feeling of prediction during déjaa vu.

The Effects of Inward versus Outward Articulation Dynamics on Familiarity

Familiarity can be described as the diffuse feeling of knowing a stimulus without being able to recall an actual previous encounter with it. The experiments in this dissertation (total N = 1,043)

The influence of articulation dynamics on recognition memory

Déjà vu and other dissociative states in memory

The hypothesis is that these experiences are all critical for understanding how subjective states guide the authors' cognitive processing, and as such theories of episodic memory should be able to accommodate this infrequent experience of déjà vu, it is suggested that prescience and presque vu should refer to dissociative states.



Becoming Famous Overnight : Limits on the Ability to Avoid Unconscious Influences of the Past

Nonfamous names presented once in an experiment are mistakenly judged as famous 24 hr later. On an immediate test, no such false fame occurs. This phenomenon parallels the sleeper effect found in

The Nature of Recollection and Familiarity: A Review of 30 Years of Research

To account for dissociations observed in recognition memory tests, several dual-process models have been proposed that assume that recognition judgments can be based on the recollection of details

Knowing but not remembering: Adult age differences in recollective experience

Age differences in recollective experience were examined in two experiments in which younger and older adults used their self-generated associations as retrieval cues, showing that aging selectively impaired retention accompanied by recollectives experience, but had no effects in the absence of recollectIVE experience.

An illusion of memory: false recognition influenced by unconscious perception

The results of two experiments showed that an illusion of memory can be produced by unconscious perception. In a first phase of those experiments, a long list of words was presented for study. For

Human recognition memory: a cognitive neuroscience perspective

Models of recognition: A review of arguments in favor of a dual-process account

The current state of the evidence for dual-process models, including the usefulness of the remember/know paradigm, is reviewed, and the relevant results are interpreted in terms of the source of activation confusion (SAC) model of memory.

A feeling-of-recognition without identification☆

A review of the déjà vu experience.

Systematic research is needed on the prevalence and etiology of this culturally familiar cognitive experience, and several laboratory models may help clarify this illusion of recognition.

Evoking false beliefs about autobiographical experience

It is demonstrated that laboratory procedures can evoke false beliefs about autobiographical experience, and this laboratory procedure for inducing autobiographical false beliefs may have implications for better understanding various illusions of recognition.

Orthography, phonology, and meaning: Word features that give rise to feelings of familiarity in recognition

  • A. Cleary
  • Psychology
    Psychonomic bulletin & review
  • 2004
It was shown that participants can recognize test cues as resembling studied words even when these cues cannot be used to recall the words that they resemble, when orthographic, phonemic, and semantic cued recall tasks were used.