Reciprocal rewards stabilize cooperation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis.


Plants and their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbionts interact in complex underground networks involving multiple partners. This increases the potential for exploitation and defection by individuals, raising the question of how partners maintain a fair, two-way transfer of resources. We manipulated cooperation in plants and fungal partners to show that… (More)
DOI: 10.1126/science.1208473


Cite this paper

@article{Kiers2011ReciprocalRS, title={Reciprocal rewards stabilize cooperation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis.}, author={E. Toby Kiers and Marie Duhamel and Yugandhar Beesetty and Jerry A. Mensah and Oscar Franken and Erik Verbruggen and Carl R. Fellbaum and George A Kowalchuk and Miranda M Hart and Alberto Bago and Todd Palmer and Stuart A. West and Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse and Jan Jansa and Heike B{\"u}cking}, journal={Science}, year={2011}, volume={333 6044}, pages={880-2} }