We investigated the interactions between human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and Ag-activated circulating TCR-gammadelta-expressing lymphocytes (Vdelta2). Coculture of immature DCs (iDCs) with peripheral blood Vdelta2 T cells activated with either pyrophosphomonoesters (isopentenyl pyrophosphate; IPP) or aminobiphosphonates (pamidronate; PAM) led to a significant up-modulation of CD86 and MHC class I molecules and to the acquisition of functional features typical of activated DCs. DC activation induced by both IPP- and PAM-stimulated gammadelta T cells was mostly mediated by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secreted by activated lymphocytes. However, the effect of PAM-activated gammadelta T cells, but not that of IPP-activated cells, required cell-to-cell contact. Reciprocally, activation of Vdelta2 T cells by PAM, but not by IPP, was dependent on cell contact with iDCs. In fact, when PAM-stimulated DC-gammadelta T cell cocultures were separated by a semipermeable membrane or treated with blocking anti-CD86 Abs, induction of CD25 and CD69 as well as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha secretion by Vdelta2 cells were strongly reduced. These results demonstrate for the first time a bidirectional activating interaction between iDCs and PAM-stimulated gammadelta T lymphocytes, thus suggesting a potential adjuvant role of this early cross-talk in the therapeutic activity of aminobiphosphonate drugs.