Recent zoonoses caused by influenza A viruses.

  title={Recent zoonoses caused by influenza A viruses.},
  author={Dennis J. Alexander and Ian H. Brown},
  journal={Revue scientifique et technique},
  volume={19 1},
Influenza is a highly contagious, acute illness which has afflicted humans and animals since ancient times. Influenza viruses are part of the Orthomyxoviridae family and are grouped into types A, B and C according to antigenic characteristics of the core proteins. Influenza A viruses infect a large variety of animal species, including humans, pigs, horses, sea mammals and birds, occasionally producing devastating pandemics in humans, such as in 1918, when over twenty million deaths occurred… 

Epidemiology of Influenza Viruses

Influenza A, B, and C viruses are capable of infecting man and the incidence of human flu is more during winters in temperate countries, whereas it is more common during winters and rainy seasons in tropical and subtropical countries.

Human Health Implications of Avian Influenza Viruses and Paramyxoviruses

  • I. CapuaD. Alexander
  • Medicine, Biology
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2004
The pathogenetic mechanisms of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in birds and the possibility of reassortment between avian and human viruses in the human host represent serious threats to human health.

A brief introduction to influenza A virus in swine.

The diversity of IAV in swine remains one of the critical challenges in diagnosis and control of this important pathogen for swine health, and in turn contributes to a significant public health risk.

Seroepizootiological investigations of animals from Obedska bara locality for presence of avian influenza virus.

Whether the avian influenza viruses type A circulate in the region of the Obedska bara marsh, which is a famous resort for many birds in Serbia, as well as many birds migrating from Europe to Africa and vice versa is examined.

The Role of Swine in the Generation of Novel Influenza Viruses

Although swine can generate novel influenza viruses capable of infecting man, at present, it is difficult to predict which viruses, if any, will cause a human pandemic.

Influenza A Virus Infections in Swine

  • B. Janke
  • Medicine, Biology
    Veterinary pathology
  • 2014
Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus.

Emerging zoonoses: crossing the species barrier.

The filoviruses and the newer paramyxovirus, Hendra and Nipah, highlight the increasing proclivity of some animal viral agents to infect human populations with devastating results.

Pathogenic assessment of avian influenza viruses in migratory birds

It is demonstrated that a diversity of low-pathogenic AI viruses carried by wild migratory birds have the capacity to infect land-based poultry and mammalian hosts while causing minimal signs of clinical disease.



Human influenza A H5N1 virus related to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

An influenza A (H1N1) virus, closely related to swine influenza virus, responsible for a fatal case of human influenza

In July 1991, an influenza A virus, designated A/Maryland/12/91 (A/MD), was isolated from the bronchial secretions of a 27-year-old animal caretaker. He had been admitted to the hospital with

The epidemiology and evolution of influenza viruses in pigs.

  • I. Brown
  • Biology
    Veterinary microbiology
  • 2000

Characterization of the surface proteins of influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans in 1997-1998.

Although analyses of the surface protein genes of the H5N1 viruses from this outbreak did not provide immediate answers regarding the molecular basis for virulence, the analyses provided clues to potentially important areas of the genes worth further investigation.

Rapid Evolution of H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Chickens in Hong Kong

It is demonstrated that the H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry comprised two distinguishable phylogenetic lineages in all genes that were in very rapid evolution.

Animals in the influenza world.

  • B. Easterday
  • Medicine, Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1980
Understanding of human influenza has been advanced because of the animals in the influenza world, and it has also become clear that many species of animals are inextricably entwined in the puzzle of influenza viruses and human influenza.

Antigenic conservation of H1N1 swine influenza viruses.

Results of ELISA with these viruses clearly showed that the antigenic sites were still present on almost all H1N1 viruses of swine origin; thus, it seems likely that the variation detected in these viruses occurs by a mechanism other than immune selection.

Origin of the pandemic 1957 H2 influenza A virus and the persistence of its possible progenitors in the avian reservoir.

It is concluded that antigenically conserved counterparts of the human Asian pandemic strain of 1957 continue to circulate in the avian reservoir and are coming into closer proximity to susceptible human populations.

Interspecies transmission and reassortment of influenza A viruses in pigs and turkeys in the United States.

These findings document a high degree of genetic exchange and reassortment of influenza A viruses in domestic turkeys in the United States and should aid future epidemiologic studies of influenza pandemics.