Recent progress in HIV vaccines inducing mucosal immune responses

  title={Recent progress in HIV vaccines inducing mucosal immune responses},
  author={Vincent Pavot and Nicolas Rochereau and Philip Lawrence and Marc P. Girard and Christian Genin and Bernard Verrier and St{\'e}phane Paul},
In spite of several attempts over many years at developing a HIV vaccine based on classical strategies, none has convincingly succeeded to date. As HIV is transmitted primarily by the mucosal route, particularly through sexual intercourse, understanding antiviral immunity at mucosal sites is of major importance. An ideal vaccine should elicit HIV-specific antibodies and mucosal CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as a first line of defense at a very early stage of HIV infection, before the virus… 

Which Vaccination Strategies and Immune Responses are More Effective Against HIV Infections

Live-attenuated vaccines could elicit more potent and durable pathogen-specific immune responses than inactivated or subunit vaccines, and several other studies strongly suggest cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-based immune responses against HIV infections.

Post-Immune Antibodies in HIV-1 Infection in the Context of Vaccine Development: A Variety of Biological Functions and Catalytic Activities

The entire spectrum of antibodies found in HIV-infected patients are reviewed, including neutralizing antibodies specific to various viral epitopes, as well as antibodies formed against various autoantigens, catalytic antibodies against autoantIGens, and some viral proteins.

HIV-1/SIV Humoral Responses in External Secretions

The markedly different effector functions of mucosal antibodies of IgG and IgA isotypes must be considered in the design of HIV-1 vaccines to stimulate S-IgA responses at sites of virus entry and IgG responses in the systemic compartment.

Vaccine targeting SIVmac251 protease cleavage sites protects macaques against vaginal infection.

This study demonstrates for the first time that a vaccine which targets only viral maturation, but lacks full-length Env and Gag immunogens, can prevent intravaginal infection in a stringent macaque/SIV challenge model.

Mucosal antibody responses to vaccines targeting SIV protease cleavage sites or full-length Gag and Env proteins in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques

Bio-Plex and Western blot analyses of cervicovaginal lavage samples showed that both the PCS and Gag/Env vaccines can elicit mucosal IgG antibody responses to SIV immunogens and the effect of the mucosal antibody responses in protection from repeated low dose pathogenic SIVmac251 challenges is being evaluated.

Vaccine with bacterium‐like particles displaying HIV‐1 gp120 trimer elicits specific mucosal responses and neutralizing antibodies in rhesus macaques

In BLP‐PAM‐immunized macaques, HIV‐1‐specific sIgA were rapidly induced through IN immunization in situ and distant mucosal sites, although the immune responses are relatively weak, suggesting thatBLP‐based delivery in combination with the IN and IM immunization approach represents a potential vaccine strategy against HIV‐ 1.

A novel vaccine targeting the viral protease cleavage sites protects Mauritian cynomolgus macaques against vaginal SIVmac251 infection

It is reported that a vaccine focusing the immune response on the sequences surrounding the 12 viral protease cleavage sites (PCSs) provides greater than 80% protection of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques against repeated intravaginal SIVmac251 challenges.



REVIEW ARTICLE: Mucosal Innate Immunity as a Determinant of HIV Susceptibility

Recent findings regarding HIV mucosal immunopathogenesis are reviewed, emphasizing the importance of innate immunity in natural protection from infection, and how natural or induced perturbations in the mucosal innate system may underpin HIV transmission are examined.

The role of antibodies in HIV vaccines.

Current vaccine design efforts have focused on a more detailed understanding of these broadly neutralizing antibodies and their epitopes to inform the design of improved vaccines.

Recombinant poxviruses as mucosal vaccine vectors.

The results demonstrate that rMVAs can activate specific immune responses at mucosal surfaces, and encourage further studies to characterize and improve the MVA mucosal immunogenicity of poxvirus vectors.

Induction of strong anti-HIV cellular immunity by a combination of Clostridium perfringens expressing HIV gag and virus like particles.

HIV-1 specific cellular immune responses in both the effector (Lamina propria) and inductive sites (Peyer's patches) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract were significantly higher in mice immunized using Cp-Gag and VLPs in a prime-boost approach compared to mice immunizing with either Cp -Gag or VLP alone.

CD8+ T cells in preventing HIV infection and disease

The phenotypic and functional properties of HIV-specific and SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell subsets during HIV infection are reviewed and the influence of viral variation with specific responses that are associated with disease progression or control are considered.

Immune and Genetic Correlates of Vaccine Protection Against Mucosal Infection by SIV in Monkeys

A vaccine protecting monkeys against mucosal infection by simian immunodeficiency virus sheds light on immune and genetic correlates of protection and highlights the need to scrutinize these types of correlates in future trials of HIV vaccines in human volunteers.

Defining the protective antibody response for HIV-1.

Recent findings from lentiviral animal models strongly suggest that neutralizing antibodies will contribute to protection against HIV-1.