Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

  title={Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe},
  author={Anton Wallner and Jenny Feige and Norikazu Kinoshita and M. Paul and Leslie Keith Fifield and Robin Golser and Maki Honda and Ulf Linnemann and Hiroyuki Matsuzaki and Silke Merchel and Georg Rugel and Stephen G. Tims and Peter Steier and Takeyasu Yamagata and Stephan Winkler},
  pages={69 - 72}
The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2–4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth’s vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is 60Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million… 

Stellar astrophysics: Supernovae in the neighbourhood

Detailed measurements of radioisotopes in deep-sea deposits, plus modelling of how they reached Earth, indicate that many supernovae have occurred near enough to have potentially influenced evolution, and suggest there have been multiple supernova within a few hundred light years, over the past few million years.

Time-resolved 2-million-year-old supernova activity discovered in Earth’s microfossil record

A time-resolved 60Fe signal residing, at least partially, in a biogenic reservoir is reported through the direct detection of live 60Fe atoms contained within secondary iron oxides, among which are magnetofossils, the fossilized chains of magnetite crystals produced by magnetotactic bacteria.

Observation of the 60Fe nucleosynthesis-clock isotope in galactic cosmic rays

The detection of supernova-produced 60Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the 60Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the 60 Fe source distance does not great exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, ⪍1 kiloparsec.

60Fe deposition during the late Pleistocene and the Holocene echoes past supernova activity

The identified 60Fe influx may signal a late echo of some million-year-old supernovae with the 60Fe-bearing dust particles still permeating the interstellar medium.


It is found that a supernova at 100 pc can have only a small effect on terrestrial organisms from visible light and that chemical changes such as ozone depletion are weak, but tropospheric ionization right down to the ground, due to the penetration of ⩾TeV CRs, will increase by nearly an order of magnitude for thousands of years, and irradiation by muons on the ground and in the upper ocean will increase twentyfold.

r-Process Radioisotopes from Near-Earth Supernovae and Kilonovae

The astrophysical sites where r-process elements are synthesized remain mysterious: it is clear that neutron star mergers (kilonovae (KNe)) contribute, and some classes of core-collapse supernovae

A nearby recent supernova that ejected the runaway star ζ Oph, the pulsar PSR B1706−16, and 60Fe found on Earth

The detection of ∼1.5–3.2 Myr old 60Fe on Earth indicates recent nearby core-collapse supernovae. For supernovae in multiple stars, the primary stars may become neutron stars, while former

Supernova Ejecta in Ocean Cores Used as Time Constraints for Nearby Stellar Groups

Evidence of a supernova event, discussed in Wallner et al., was discovered in the deep-sea crusts with two signals dating back to 2-3 and 7-9 Myr ago. In this contribution, we place constraints on

A Way Out of the Bubble Trouble? - Upon Reconstructing the Origin of the Local Bubble and Loop I via Radioisotopic Signatures on Earth

Deep-sea archives all over the world show an enhanced concentration of the radionuclide $^{60}$Fe, isolated in layers dating from about 2.2 Myr ago. Since this comparatively long-lived isotope is not

Do Near-Solar-System Supernovae Enhance Volcanic Activities on Earth and Neighbouring Planets on Their Paths through the Spiral Arms of the Milky Way, and What Might Be the Consequences for Estimations of Earth’s History and Predictions for Its Future?

  • H. Brink
  • Geology, Physics
    International Journal of Geosciences
  • 2019
Recent observations of young volcanism on the near-Earth terrestrial planets require a new understanding. Magmatic/volcanic episodes on Venus, Mars and Mercury, as well as on Earth’s Moon, are



AMS measurements of cosmogenic and supernova-ejected radionuclides in deep-sea sediment cores

Samples of two deep-sea sediment cores from the Indian Ocean are analyzed with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to search for traces of recent supernova activity ~2 Myr ago. Here, long-lived

Galactic-Cosmic-Ray-Produced 3 He in a Ferromanganese Crust : Any Supernova 60 Fe Excess on Earth ?

An excess of 60Fe in 2.4–3:2 106 year old ferromanganese crust (237KD) from the deep Pacific Ocean has been considered as evidence for the delivery of debris from a nearby supernova explosion to

Geological Isotope Anomalies as Signatures of Nearby Supernovae

Nearby supernova explosions may cause geological isotope anomalies via the direct deposition of debris or by cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the mass of material

Galactic-cosmic-ray-produced 3He in a ferromanganese crust: any supernova 60Fe excess on earth?

An excess of 60Fe in 2.4-3.2 x 10(6) year old ferromanganese crust from the deep Pacific Ocean can be plausibly explained by the presence of micrometeorites trapped by the crust, rather than injection from a supernova source.


We consider the production and deposition on Earth of isotopes with half-lives in the range 105–108 yr that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of

SPI observations of the diffuse ^60Fe emission in the Galaxy

Gamma-ray line emission from radioactive decay of 60Fe provides constraints on nucleosynthesis in massive stars and supernovae. The spectrometer SPI on board INTEGRAL has accumulated nearly three


We investigate the nucleosynthesis of the radionuclide 60Fe in electron-capture supernovae (ECSNe). The nucleosynthetic results are based on a self-consistent, two-dimensional simulation of an ECSN

Evidence for nearby supernova explosions.

It is proposed that approximately 2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction.

60Fe anomaly in a deep-sea manganese crust and implications for a nearby supernova source.

A well resolved time profile of the 60Fe concentration in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust is measured and a highly significant increase 2.8 Myr ago is found.

Gamma-Ray Line Signals from 26Al and 60Fe in the Galaxies of the Local Group

Steady state γ-line fluxes from the decay of 26Al and 60Fe situated in the Local Group galaxies LMC, SMC, NGC 6822, IC 1613, M31, and M33 are estimated with standard supernova yields and supernova