Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950

  title={Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related genetically to strains isolated in 1950},
  author={Katsuhisa Nakajima and Ulrich Desselberger and Peter Palese},
Comparison of the oligonucleotide maps of the RNAs of current human influenza (H1N1) virus isolates shows these strains to be much more closely related to viruses isolated in 1950 than to strains which circulated before or after that period. 
Persistence of a 1930 swine influenza A (H1N1) virus in Quebec.
Serological evidence indicates that two antigenically distinct H1N1 influenza A viruses were isolated during an outbreak of respiratory disease in Quebec swine in 1990/91 and continued to circulate widely in south-central Quebec until at least 1993.
Recent H3N2 swine influenza virus with haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes similar to 1975 human strains.
It is proposed that human-like H3N2 influenza A strains may remain invariant for long periods in swine, which may serve as a reservoir for human pandemics.
Variation of influenza A, B, and C viruses.
Influenza is caused by highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the orthomyxovirus group. These viruses are capable of constantly changing the genes coding for their surface proteins as well as for
The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1). Part I: epidemiologic concerns and virulence determinants
Epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 are discussed and no one can currently predict with certainty whether H5N 1 will become a human pandemic virus.
Genome analysis of H1N1 influenza virus strains isolated in the U.S.S.R. during an epidemic in 1961–1962
SummaryGenome composition and polypeptides of H1N1 influenza virus strains isolated in the U.S.S.R. during an epidemic in 1961–1962 have been studied as well as H2N2 influenza virus strains that
Emergence of influenza A H1N2 reassortant viruses in the human population during 2001.
Functional changes in the H1 HA may have facilitated its replacement of the H3 HA and may contribute to the future epidemiologic significance of these H1N2 viruses.
Antigenic and Genetic Variation of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses
In 1977, type A(H1N1) influenza virus, related to strains that had circulated in 1950, reappeared and spread worldwide as a true pandemic virus. Summary reports to the World Health Organization


Recombination of Influenza A Viruses of Human and Animal Origin
The experiments demonstrate genetic homology of human and equine influenza A viruses and suggest the possibility of their recombination in nature.
Mapping of the influenza virus genome: identification of the hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase genes.
  • P. Palese, J. Schulman
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1976
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the RNA of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H0N1) and A/Hong Kong/8/68 (H3N2) viruses and recombinant viruses derived from them revealed that each contains eight RNA
Mapping of the influenza virus genome. III. Identification of genes coding for nucleoprotein, membrane protein, and nonstructural protein
This report has identified the genes coding for the remaining virus-specific moving RNA segment of influenza A/PR/8/34 (HON1) virus and segment 6 of Hong Kong virus coded for the respective nucleoproteins, and that segment 7 of both viruses codes for the membtane protein and RNA segment 8 codes forThe nonstructural protein, completing the mapping of the influenza A virus genome.
Characterization and mapping of RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides derived from the genomes of Akv and MCF murine leukemia viruses.
The results are consistent with a recombinational origin of MCF viruses, as proposed by Hartley and Rowe and their collaborators, and the RNA sequences present in different MCF isolates but not present in Akv-viruses are related.
Oligonucleotide fingerprints of RNA species obtained from rhabdoviruses belonging to the vesicular stomatitis virus subgroup.
The relationships among the genomes of various rhabdoviruses belonging to the vesicular stomatitis virus subgroup were analyzed by an oligonucleotide fingerprinting technique and it was shown that their RNAs contain fewer oligon nucleotides than the corresponding B particle RNA species.