Recent developments in cardiac output determination by bioimpedance: comparison with invasive cardiac output and potential cardiovascular applications

@article{Moshkovitz2004RecentDI,
  title={Recent developments in cardiac output determination by bioimpedance: comparison with invasive cardiac output and potential cardiovascular applications},
  author={Yaron Moshkovitz and Edo Kaluski and Olga Milo and Zvi Vered and Gad Cotter},
  journal={Current Opinion in Cardiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={19},
  pages={229-237}
}
Purpose of review To describe recent developments in bioimpedance technique and its application in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac output determination has been used selectively during recent years because of the need for invasive right heart catheterization. Hence, experience with its application in patients with cardiovascular diseases and especially heart failure is limited. Bioimpedance is a novel noninvasive technique determining changes in instantaneous (during one heartbeat) conductance… Expand
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