Recent development of enterovirus A vaccine candidates for the prevention of hand, foot, and mouth disease

@article{Fang2018RecentDO,
  title={Recent development of enterovirus A vaccine candidates for the prevention of hand, foot, and mouth disease},
  author={Chih-Yeu Fang and Chia-Chyi Liu},
  journal={Expert Review of Vaccines},
  year={2018},
  volume={17},
  pages={819 - 831}
}
ABSTRACT Introduction: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a childhood illness commonly caused by enterovirus A. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the most commonly identified viruses associated with HFMD. Recently, outbreaks caused by different enterovirus A including CV-A6 and CV-A10 are increasing. Being available now to protect against EV-A71 infection, inactivated EV-A71 vaccines cannot prevent coxsackievirus infections, thus limiting their general… 
Novel strategies for the development of hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccines and antiviral therapies
TLDR
The authors highlight the current approaches for anti-enterovirus therapeutic development and discuss the application of these novel strategies for the discovery of vaccines and antiviral drugs for enteroviruses.
Neutralizing Antibodies against Enteroviruses in Patients with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
TLDR
The results support previous reports about the potential benefit of EV-A71 vaccine but highlight the necessity of multivalent vaccines to control HFMD.
Development of a multivalent enterovirus subunit vaccine based on immunoinformatic design principles for the prevention of HFMD.
TLDR
This study provides a high cost-effective method of designing a multivalent enterov virus vaccine protect against a wide range of enterovirus pathogens.
Enterovirus A71 antivirals: Past, present, and future
TLDR
Major discoveries in EV-A71 antiviral development are discussed, the advantages and limitations of each drug target are analyzed, and the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed are highlighted to advance the field forward.
Immune responses against enterovirus A71 infection: Implications for vaccine success
TLDR
Future development of a multivalent enterovirus vaccine will require knowledge of correlates of protection, understanding of cross‐protection and memory T‐cell responses among enteroviruses, and diagnostic tools, potential therapeutics, and subunit vaccine candidates.
From Monovalent to Multivalent Vaccines, the Exploration for Potential Preventive Strategies Against Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)
TLDR
The present review summarizes recent advances in HF MD vaccine development and discusses the next steps toward a safe and effective HFMD vaccine that is capable of establishing a cross-protective antibody response.
Preparation and Verification of a Monoclonal Antibody against a Conserved Linear Epitope in Enterovirus A Protein 2C.
TLDR
A recombinant monoclonal antibody is generated against multiple EVA types and its performance is confirmed, which may facilitate the future study of Enterovirus A infection and many potential applications, such as the diagnosis of pathogen or the development of antiviral therapies.
Efficacy of Coxsackievirus A5 Vaccine Candidates in an Actively Immunized Mouse Model
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the Vero cell-adapted CV-A5 strain is a promising vaccine candidate and could be used as a multivalent HFMD vaccine component in the future.
Efficacy of a coxsackievirus A6 vaccine candidate in an actively immunized mouse model
TLDR
The results indicated that this actively immunized mouse model is invaluable for future studies to develop multivalent vaccines containing the major component of CV-A6 against HFMD.
Epidemical and etiological study on hand, foot and mouth disease following EV-A71 vaccination in Xiangyang, China
TLDR
Investigation of whole etiological spectrum following EV-A71 vaccination of approximate 40,000 infants and young children in Xiangyang demonstrated that six major serotypes of enteroviruses were co-circulating, including newly emergedCV-A2 and CV-A5, which are urgently needed for control of HFMD.
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 126 REFERENCES
Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?
TLDR
The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines, which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A and CV-A10, and the prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed.
Prospect and challenges for the development of multivalent vaccines against hand, foot and mouth diseases.
TLDR
The critical bottlenecks in the development of multivalent HFMD vaccines are discussed, including the selection of vaccine strains, animal models to assess vaccine potency, the definition of end-points for efficacy trials, and the need for improved manufacturing processes to produce affordable vaccines.
Efficacy of a Trivalent Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Vaccine against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackieviruses A16 and A6 in Mice
TLDR
Mouse-adapted strains of CVA16 and CVA6 were produced by sequential passage of the viruses through mice deficient in interferon (IFN) α/β (A129) and α/ β and γ (AG129) receptors, which will be useful for future studies on HFMD related pathogenesis and the efficacy of vaccine candidates.
A novel inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine can elicit cross-protective immunity against coxsackievirus A16 in mice.
TLDR
The chimeric EV71 constructed in this study was shown to be a feasible and promising candidate bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16, and provides an alternative platform for broad-spectrum HFMD vaccines development.
EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases
TLDR
Developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases.
Impact of genetic changes, pathogenicity and antigenicity on Enterovirus- A71 vaccine development.
TLDR
The monovalent EV-A71 IV elicits humoral immunity but lacks long-term immunogenicity and chances of reversion is reduced by presence of multiple mutations which could reduce pathogenicity.
Review of enterovirus 71 vaccines.
TLDR
The critical factors affecting EV71 vaccine product registration are discussed, including clinical epidemiology, antigenic shift issues in cross-protection and vaccine strain selection, standardized animal models for potency testing, and cost-effective manufacturing processes for potential incorporation of FI-EV71 vaccine into Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines.
Considerations for developing an immunization strategy with enterovirus 71 vaccine.
TLDR
Evaluation in China is especially important because there are no other EV71 vaccines globally, and the epidemiology of HFMD must be evaluated to assure a match between vaccination strategy and epidemiology.
A virus-like particle-based tetravalent vaccine for hand, foot, and mouth disease elicits broad and balanced protective immunity
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the tetravalent VLP vaccine represents a promising broad-spectrum HFMD vaccine candidate and passively transferred tetraavalent vaccine-immunized sera conferred efficient protection against single or mixed infections with EV71, CVA16, C VA10, and CVA6 viruses in mice, whereas the monovalent vaccines could only protect mice against homotypic virus infections but not heterotypic challenges.
Identification and characterization of a cross-neutralization epitope of Enterovirus 71.
TLDR
A dose-dependent relationship between the number of VP2-28 epitope units measured by a quantitative assay in vaccine preparations and the magnitude of neutralizing titers was demonstrated and could be used as the surrogate biomarker in the potency testing of candidate EV71 vaccines.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...