Recent clinical trials of pharmacologic cardiovascular interventions in patients with chronic kidney disease.


End stage kidney disease (ESKD) is associated with a 10- to 20-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with age- and sex-matched controls without CKD. In spite of this marked increase in risk, the vast majority of cardiovascular intervention clinical trials to date have specifically excluded subjects with CKD. The aim of this paper is to… (More)


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