Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Associated Uveitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan
Chronic scarring-type uveitis is a frequent extra-articular manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It occurs in about 20% of children with this disease, commencing typically within a few years from its onset. The risk of uveitis is greatest in antinuclear antibody-positive girls with early onset oligoarthritis. The classic clinical picture is chronic bilateral anterior uveitis, usually asymptomatic until substantial damage to intraocular structures occurs. In view of the asymptomatic nature of the condition, routine screening of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients 2-4 times a year is crucial to prevent complications. The treatment consists of topical corticosteroids and mydriatics, in severe cases with immunosuppressive agents, and surgical management of complications. Although the prognosis of uveitis is improving, there are cases refractory to standard regimens. Patients in whom uveitis commences prior to the onset of arthritis present a special problem.