Recent Trends in the Use of “Club Drugs”: An Australian Review

@article{Degenhardt2005RecentTI,
  title={Recent Trends in the Use of “Club Drugs”: An Australian Review},
  author={Louisa Degenhardt and Jan Copeland and Paul Dillon},
  journal={Substance Use \& Misuse},
  year={2005},
  volume={40},
  pages={1241 - 1256}
}
The use of “club drugs” such as MDMA, ketamine, and GHB appears to have increased in Western countries over the last 20 years, and Australia is no exception to that trend. While levels of use appear to be relatively low in the general population, among users of these drugs a number of adverse health and psychological problems, including dependence, have been reported. MDMA or ecstasy is the third most commonly used illicit drug in Australia, and relatively more information is available on its… 

“Charging” and “Blowing Out”: Patterns and Cultures of GHB Use in Melbourne, Australia

TLDR
The knowledge, attitudes and related “risk-behaviors” of individuals who use GHB, as well as the various cultures and contexts surrounding its use are explored, with recommendations for GHB specific prevention and harm reduction strategies.

Commentary on Morgan et al. (2010): ketamine abuse: first medical evidence of harms we should confront.

TLDR
The authors were able to recruit a population of frequent ketamine users who use relatively few other club drugs and saw impairments in working and episodic memory and executive functions and experienced reduced psychological wellbeing.

To use or not to use: an update on licit and illicit ketamine use

TLDR
Dependence, lower urinary tract dysfunction, and sexual impulse or violence were the most notable among the ketamine-associated symptoms in these countries, implying that the danger of ketamine may have been underestimated previously.

Comparison of Characteristics of Methamphetamine Versus Opiate Users in Tehran, Iran

TLDR
The findings of the study showed that, compared with the opiate users, methamphetamine users are younger, more likely to be single, and less likely to have received treatment.

Nonfatal overdose from alcohol and/or drugs among a sample of recreational drug users

TLDR
Intervention and prevention measures seeking to reduce overdoses among recreational drug users should not only address illicit drug use but also alcohol and polysubstance use, and may target those who usually consume high amounts of alcohol when drinking are younger and who experience housing instability.

Association Between Narcotic Use and Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among American Adolescents

TLDR
Drawing on the data gathered in the 2006 Monitoring the Future study of American youth, binary logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between AAS use and the use of alcohol, crack cocaine, Vicodin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Ketamine, and Rohypnol.

Recreational ketamine-related deaths notified to the National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths, England, 1997–2019

TLDR
Although controlled, recreational ketamine use and related fatalities continue to increase and consumers need to be more aware of the potentially fatal risks they face.

Illicit Drug Use in the Flemish Nightlife Scene between 2003 and 2009

TLDR
Monitoring emerging trends, which can be quickly observed in the nightlife scene, provides meaningful information for anticipating possible trends.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 146 REFERENCES

MDMA ('ecstasy') and other 'club drugs'. The new epidemic.

Adverse effects of stimulant drugs in a community sample of drug users.

The agony of “ecstasy”

TLDR
While certainly the best-known derivative of amphetamine, MDMA is only one of a range that have been used illicitly, and Numerous other amphetamine analogues have appeared since the 1960s, either as recreational drugs in their own right, or as contaminants in illicit drug samples.

GHB use among Australians: characteristics, use patterns and associated harm.

Ecstasy use in Australia: patterns of use and associated harm.

The health effects of ecstasy: a literature review.

TLDR
Ecstasy users should be aware of the importance of controlling body temperature and fluid intake, early signs of adverse effects, and the need to seek medical assistance promptly, as well as the findings of animal and human studies.

Patterns of ecstasy use by drug users

To establish patterns of MDMA (ecstasy) use and relate these to other substance use, health and social problems related to ecstasy use, a multi-site chain-referral sample was recruited via the 'dance

Use of MDMA and Other Illicit Drugs by Young Adult Males in Northern Spain

TLDR
Recruits who had used MDMA during the year prior to study had significantly higher scores on the Neuroticism and Psychoticism Subscales of the EPQ-A, and reported higher levels of sensation seeking.

Ecstasy use in New Zealand: findings from the 1998 and 2001 National Drug Surveys.

TLDR
The use of ecstasy in New Zealand increased between 1998 and 2001 and conditions of supply became easier, and users reported problems related to use in a range of areas of their lives.
...