1 st International Lymphoma Leukemia Myeloma (LLM) Congress Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a chemoresistant malignancy and for decades, the only active drugs were alkylating agents and high-dose corticosteroids. The introduction of novel agents (Thalidomide, Bortezomib and Lenalidomide) is changing the management of MM patients both for frontline therapy and at relapse. These agents have a different mode of action and can act not only on the myeloma cells but also on the microenvironment which is necessary for tumor cell survival and proliferation. In vitro experiments have shown possible synergy with dexamethasone or chemotherapeutic agents. They are active even in heavily pretreated patients and offer new possibilities for relapsed/refractory MM.