Recalibrating expectations about effect size: A multi-method survey of effect sizes in the ABCD study

@article{Owens2021RecalibratingEA,
  title={Recalibrating expectations about effect size: A multi-method survey of effect sizes in the ABCD study},
  author={Max Michael Owens and Alexandra S. Potter and Courtland S. Hyatt and Matthew D. Albaugh and Wesley K. Thompson and Terry L. Jernigan and Dekang Yuan and Sage Hahn and Nicholas A. Allgaier and Hugh Garavan},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
  year={2021},
  volume={16}
}
Effect sizes are commonly interpreted using heuristics established by Cohen (e.g., small: r = .1, medium r = .3, large r = .5), despite mounting evidence that these guidelines are mis-calibrated to the effects typically found in psychological research. This study’s aims were to 1) describe the distribution of effect sizes across multiple instruments, 2) consider factors qualifying the effect size distribution, and 3) identify examples as benchmarks for various effect sizes. For aim one, effect… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

A Multidimensional Approach to Understanding the Emergence of Sex Differences in Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence
Women are more vulnerable to internalizing disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety). This study took an integrative, developmental approach to investigate multidimensional factors associated with the
Internalizing–externalizing comorbidity and regional brain volumes in the ABCD study
TLDR
Heterotypic symptoms were associated with ACC volumes for both sexes, over and above the main effects of internalizing and externalizing alone, however, heterotypic comorbidity was associated with largerACC volumes for girls, but with smaller ACC volumes with boys.
Ecological stress, amygdala reactivity, and internalizing symptoms in preadolescence: Is parenting a buffer?
TLDR
A significant association between ecological stress and subsequent internalizing symptoms, which was greater in males than females was revealed, and effects from comparable small studies should be reconsidered in larger samples.
Associations among Household and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantages, Resting-state Frontoamygdala Connectivity, and Internalizing Symptoms in Youth.
Exposure to socioeconomic disadvantages (SED) can have negative impacts on mental health, yet SED are a multifaceted construct and the precise processes by which SED confer deleterious effects are
Long-lasting effects of insufficient sleep on neurocognitive development in early adolescence
TLDR
The current study identified potential neural mechanisms of adverse effect of insufficient sleep in adolescents, which might provide a theoretical grounding for sleep intervention programs to improve the long-term developmental outcomes in adolescents.
Hyperbolic discounting rates and risk for problematic alcohol use in youth enrolled in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study
Adolescence is the peak period for the emergence of substance use, which can lead to long‐term psychosocial, occupational and interpersonal complications. Ongoing large‐scale, longitudinal,
Gastric symptoms and low perceived maternal warmth are associated with eating disorder symptoms in young adolescent girls.
TLDR
Gastric symptoms and low perceived maternal acceptance may interact to result in heightened risk for EDs in young adolescent girls.
Patterns of psychopathology and cognition in sex chromosome aneuploidy
TLDR
Findings help to tailor clinical assessment of this common and impactful family of genetic disorders and suggest that dosage abnormalities of X- and Y-linked genes impart somewhat distinct profiles of neuropsychiatric risk.
Family Well-Being During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Risks of Financial Insecurity and Coping.
  • M. Gonzalez, S. Brown, S. Tapert
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
  • 2022
TLDR
Poorer family well-being was linked to prepandemic psychosocial and financial adversity and was associated with pandemic-related material hardship and social disruptions to routines, while a greater endorsement of coping strategies was mainly associated with overall better familyWell-being.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
Evaluating Effect Size in Psychological Research: Sense and Nonsense
  • D. Funder, D. Ozer
  • Psychology
    Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science
  • 2019
Effect sizes are underappreciated and often misinterpreted—the most common mistakes being to describe them in ways that are uninformative (e.g., using arbitrary standards) or misleading (e.g.,
Meaningful Effects in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study
TLDR
The ABCD Study aims and design are described, as well as issues surrounding estimation of meaningful associations using its data, including population inferences, hypothesis testing, power and precision, control of covariates, interpretation of associations, and recommended best practices for reproducible research, analytical procedures and reporting of results.
A Guide for Population-based Analysis of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study Baseline Data
TLDR
This guide will present results of an empirical investigation of the ABCD baseline data that compares the statistical efficiency of multi-level modeling and distribution-free design-based approaches—both weighted and unweighted--to analyses of theABCD baselineData.
Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences
  • Jacob Cohen
  • Mathematics
    The SAGE Encyclopedia of Research Design
  • 2022
Contents: Prefaces. The Concepts of Power Analysis. The t-Test for Means. The Significance of a Product Moment rs (subscript s). Differences Between Correlation Coefficients. The Test That a
The Meaningfulness of Effect Sizes in Psychological Research: Differences Between Sub-Disciplines and the Impact of Potential Biases
TLDR
Certain biases have caused a dramatic inflation in published effects, making it difficult to compare an actual effect with the real population effects (as these are unknown), and there were very large differences in the mean effects between psychological sub-disciplines and between different study designs,Making it impossible to apply any global benchmarks.
Recruiting the ABCD sample: Design considerations and procedures
The N-Pact Factor: Evaluating the Quality of Empirical Journals with Respect to Sample Size and Statistical Power
TLDR
The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%, and show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish.
...
...