Rebuilding motor function of the spinal cord based on functional electrical stimulation

  title={Rebuilding motor function of the spinal cord based on functional electrical stimulation},
  author={Xiao-Yan Shen and Wei Du and Wei Huang and Yi Chen},
  journal={Neural Regeneration Research},
  pages={1327 - 1332}
Rebuilding the damaged motor function caused by spinal cord injury is one of the most serious challenges in clinical neuroscience. The function of the neural pathway under the damaged sites can be rebuilt using functional electrical stimulation technology. In this study, the locations of motor function sites in the lumbosacral spinal cord were determined with functional electrical stimulation technology. A three-dimensional map of the lumbosacral spinal cord comprising the relationship between… 
Intra-Spinal Stimulation Leads to Activation of Motor Modules and Restoration of Monitored Movements in Spinally-Injured Rabbits
Electrical stimulation of functional units (modules) in an injured spinal cord is the primary strategy to restore neuromuscular movements. The current study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the motor
Complex Electrical Stimulation Systems in Motor Function Rehabilitation after Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an existing incurable disease that brings great pain and life obstacles to patients. Spinal cord electrical stimulation is an effective means to alleviate spinal cord
Comparative Study of Intraspinal Microstimulation and Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation
  • C. Tao, Xiao-Yan Shen, +4 authors Xiaoying Lü
  • Medicine, Computer Science
    2019 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)
  • 2019
Although the distribution of motor function regions measured by these two methods differed in the type of motion, the segment distribution of each motion were roughly the same, so if conditions permit, epidural stimulation can be used instead of intraspinal microstimulation to reduce secondary damage to the spinal cord.
Functional organization of motor networks in the lumbosacral spinal cord of non-human primates
The obtained spinal cord maps in monkeys provide important knowledge that will guide the very first testing of these neuroprostheses in humans, and suggest that the human spinal cord may also be organized similarly.
Real-time and wearable functional electrical stimulation system for volitional hand motor function control using the electromyography bridge method
Test results showed that wrist flexion/extension, hand grasp, and finger extension could be reproduced with high accuracy and low latency, and this system can build a bridge of information transmission between healthy limbs and paralyzed limbs.


Intraspinal microstimulation for the recovery of function following spinal cord injury.
A historical review of intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) and thoughts on the clinical potential for ISMS with regard to implantation techniques, stability, and damage induced by mechanical and electrical factors are presented.
Spinal cord stimulation: therapeutic benefits and movement generation after spinal cord injury.
Taken collectively, spinal cord stimulation holds substantial promise in restoring function after neural injury or disease.
Spinal cord stimulation for restoration of locomotion
  • V. Mushahwar, R. Saigal
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Second Joint 24th Annual Conference and the Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society] [Engineering in Medicine and Biology
  • 2002
Results indicate that ISMS may be a viable neuroprosthetic approach for improving or restoring limb movements after spinal cord injury and may also be used in conjunction with other rehabilitation approaches such as regeneration, locomotor training and neuropharmacology to enhance the functional benefits after injury.
Combinatory Electrical and Pharmacological Neuroprosthetic Interfaces to Regain Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury
It is shown that chemical or electrical stimulations can engage specific elements of this spinal machinery, thus resulting in distinct patterns of locomotion in paralyzed spinal rats, providing a strong rationale for the development of neuroprosthetic chemotrode and electrode arrays that would enable a detailed and distributed access to the different elements of the spinal motor infrastructure.
Therapeutic intraspinal stimulation to generate activity and promote long-term recovery
Cervical intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is focused on as a promising method of activating the spinal cord distal to an injury site, either to directly produce movements or more intriguingly to improve subsequent volitional control of the paretic extremities.
Intraspinal micro stimulation generates locomotor-like and feedback-controlled movements
By stimulating through a few intraspinal microwires, near-normal bipedal locomotor-like stepping and feedback-controlled movements could be achieved.
Spatiotemporal activation of lumbosacral motoneurons in the locomotor step cycle.
A dynamic model of the spatiotemporal activation of ensembles of alpha motoneurons (MNs) in the cat lumbosacral spinal cord during the locomotor step cycle is produced and the distribution of neuronal activity in the spinal cords during normal locomotion with descending control and sensory inputs intact has not been visualized before.
Functional Electrical Stimulation Control of Standing and Stepping After Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Technical Characteristics
Progress in the development of closed‐loop FES walking systems has been impeded by their lack of practicality, but this obstacle could be overcome via implanted systems, especially if using controllers based on deterministic rule sets derived from motion sensor feedback.
Selective activation of muscle groups in the feline hindlimb through electrical microstimulation of the ventral lumbo-sacral spinal cord.
  • V. Mushahwar, K. Horch
  • Biology, Medicine
    IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
  • 2000
The spatial and functional segregation of motor pools manifested at the spinal cord level can have direct applications in the areas of functional electrical stimulation and motor control.
Proposed specifications for a lumbar spinal cord electrode array for control of lower extremities in paraplegia.
  • V. Mushahwar, K. Horch
  • Medicine
    IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
  • 1997
Preliminary specifications are presented for an electrode array to be implanted in the human spinal cord for functional neuromuscular stimulation for control of lower extremity muscles in paralyzed individuals.