Reassessment of the 1907 Sumatra “Tsunami Earthquake” Based on Macroseismic, Seismological, and Tsunami Observations, and Modeling

  title={Reassessment of the 1907 Sumatra “Tsunami Earthquake” Based on Macroseismic, Seismological, and Tsunami Observations, and Modeling},
  author={Stacey Servito Martin and Linlin Li and Emile A. Okal and Julie Morin and Alexander E. G. Tetteroo and Adam D. Switzer and Kerry Sieh},
  journal={Pure and Applied Geophysics},
On 4 January 1907, an earthquake occurred off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, with an instrumental surface-wave magnitude (MS) in the range of 7.5–8.0 at periods of ~ 40 s. The tsunami it generated was destructive on the islands of Nias and Simeulue, where it killed hundreds and gave rise to the legend of the S’mong. This tsunami was also observed in other parts of the Indian Ocean basin. Relative to its instrumented magnitude, the size of the tsunami was anomalous, qualifying the event… 
Twenty-Five Years of Progress in the Science of “Geological” Tsunamis Following the 1992 Nicaragua and Flores Events
  • E. Okal
  • Geology
    Pure and Applied Geophysics
  • 2019
AbstractWe review a set of 47 tsunamis of geological origin (triggered by earthquakes, landslides or volcanoes) which have occurred over the past 25 years and provided significant new insight into
Introduction to “Twenty Five Years of Modern Tsunami Science Following the 1992 Nicaragua and Flores Island Tsunamis, Volume I”
Twenty-two papers on tsunamis are included in the Pure and Applied Geophysics topical issue “Twenty five years of modern tsunami science following the 1992 Nicaragua and Flores Island tsunamis:
Earthquake rupture on multiple splay faults and its effect on tsunamis
18 Detailed imaging of accretionary wedges reveal complex splay fault networks which 19 could pose a significant tsunami hazard. However, the dynamics of multiple splay fault 20 activation and
Embracing Uncertainty in"Small Data"Problems: Estimating Earthquakes from Historical Anecdotes
We apply the Bayesian inversion process to make principled estimates of the magnitude and location of a pre-instrumental earthquake in Eastern Indonesia in the mid 19th century, by combining
Guest editorial
  • Fiona Williamson
  • Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal
  • 2021


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Fault parameters of the 1896 Sanriku Tsunami Earthquake estimated from Tsunami Numerical Modeling
The June 15, 1896 Sanriku earthquake generated devastating tsunamis with the maximum run-up of 25 m and caused the worst tsunami disaster in the history of Japan, despite its moderate surface wave
Source characteristics of the Nicaraguan Tsunami Earthquake of September 2, 1992
A large, Ms = 7.2, shallow earthquake took place off the Pacific coast of Nicaragua on September 2, 1992, and set off large tsunamis. The ground motion of the main shock was very weak along the whole
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SUMMARY We present a re-evaluation of the seismological properties of the Aleutian ‘tsunami earthquake’ of 1946 April 1, characterized by a deceptively low conventional magnitude (7.4) in view of its
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SUMMARY The M w = 8.4 earthquake on 2007 September 12, offshore of the Bengkulu province of Sumatra, Indonesia, generated a moderate tsunami with run-up heights of up to 4 m as measured by Indonesian
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Partial rupture of a locked patch of the Sumatra megathrust during the 2007 earthquake sequence
It is shown that the same portion of a megathrust can rupture in different patterns depending on whether asperities break as isolated seismic events or cooperate to produce a larger rupture, as well as the influence of non-permanent barriers, zones with locally lower pre-stress due to the past earthquakes.
Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site response, Moho reflections and a triggered earthquake
Re-evaluated intensity distributions for the 1897 M w 8.0 Shillong and the 1905 M w 7.8 Kangra earthquakes, combined with geodetic constraints on rupture geometries, allow us to compare observed
Shallow subduction zone earthquakes and their tsunamigenic potential
SUMMARY We have examined the source spectra of all shallow subduction zone earthquakes from 1992 to 1996 with moment magnitude 7.0 or greater, as well as some other interesting events, in the period